a Aquaculture and Fisheries Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research centre, 6708 WD Wageningen, The Netherlands

b Coastal and Marine Management, VHL University of Applied Sciences, 8934 CJ Leeuwarden, The Netherlands

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Keywords: Stylophora, pistillata, coral aquaculture, nutrient enrichment, zooxanthellae, bicarbonate, DIC


Coral reefs are amongst the most biodiverse ecosystems and equal the primary production of tropical rainforests [1].