Christine Williams

Recent Blog Posts

Corals get Herpesvirus too

Corals get Herpesvirus too

The herpes viruses are a large family of large (for a virus) double-stranded DNA viruses enclosed in an icosahedral protein coat (see above). Many of these cause disease in humans: cold sores, chicken pox and the sexually transmitted herpes varieties, for example....

More fish using tools

More fish using tools

            Last year we had the first reported use of tools by the Blackspot Tuskfish, Choerodon schoenleinii. The fish were observed digging mollusks out of the sand, carrying them in their mouths to a flat outcropping of rock or coral,...

The Pros and Cons of Frugality

The Pros and Cons of Frugality

Some people get off on spending money, and reefkeeping is a great hobby for those people. There are tons of "high-end", trendy corals, the latest and greatest gadgets, and bigger and better tanks for those with some extra cash and a hankering for retail therapy. Then,...

Pros and Probiotics

Pros and Probiotics

The term “probiotics” is bandied about in reefkeeping a lot lately as the carbon-dosing fad (and technology) has been increased by the advent of Biopellets and other solid carbon sources.  These are meant to take the place of the old vodka dosing method; adding the benefit of easier administration, even more bacterial growth, and consequently more nutrient control. …

Welcome to Submerge(d)!

Welcome to Submerge(d)!

To all our fellow reef addicts, newbies and old salts alike, welcome to our new blog! Here you will find writing on all aspects of reefkeeping—trends and techniques, emerging science, the latest corals, other inverts and fish to hit the markets, new product reviews,...

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