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  As Advanced Aquarist continues to provide aquarists, both amateur and professional, with information that is factual (based on experimental and quantifiable research), it gratifying that our efforts have been recognized by an esteemed publication like National Geographic. See, http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2007/02/hawaiian-worms/hawaiian-worms-learn NOTE: Our indefatigable researcher, Professor Sanjay Joshi – AKA Photon Man – in this issue compares metal halide, VHO fluorescent, and new LED, lighting fixtures. There are lots of opinions about these lighting sources, but Sanjay just gives us the facts, based on measurement. NOTE: Also in this issue, Professor Feldman provides us with a chemical analysis of skimmate. Prior to this analysis, aquarists were only able to rely on subjective observations like smell or appearance. I received the following email, 

Hi terry,I have been a big fan of your large reef for many years. My question is about trying to form a pair or group of one of the following EMPEROR ANGEL / MAJESTIC ANGEL OR REGAL ANGEL. The system would be at least 260 gal to 300 gals. Live rock formation ECOSYTEM MUD filter and a down draft skimmer. How would you try to pair or group the fish? Should I use juvi’s or sub adult fish all placed at the same time. Should I keep the numbers to 5 or 7 or any odd amount? I do realize that the space allowed will only keep a pair that has formed. Whatever info you could give would help.Thanks,
Ron Mastero

  First of all, thanks for the compliment. My advice is what you already suggest; that is, put them all in at the same time and in as large a tank as you can manage. Once established, angelfish — like surgeonfish – become very territorial, and will attack any new comer that it perceives as a rival, and attack most strongly new fish that essentially have the same body shape as itself. This form of aggression, intraspecific aggression, is hard wired and undoubtedly has survival value. Fish with the same body shape eat the same food and are therefore rivals for said food, and possibly for mates also. Also, be sure to provide lots of hiding places. Good luck! 


My Majestic angelfish (Euxiphipops navarchus).




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