Aquarium Corals: Stony Coral Parasites: Part One: Copepods, Not Just Red Bugs

I have been contemplating writing this article(s) for quite a while. I had a few photographs taken over the years, but when a friend on the mainland (Steve Ruddy) sent some coral parasite – ‘bug’ – photos, that did it – it was time to do some further research and get this all on paper (or the internet, as the case may be).

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Figure 1. The parasitic copepod Kombia angulata, a species found on or in stony corals Psammocora and Porites. Drawing by the author, after Humes and Stock, 1972.

The title of this article is a reflection on the state of the art of the reef aquarium hobby – advanced aquarists have reached a point where most of the captive reef’s husbandry issues have been resolved. We can now concentrate on issues on other than the Big Four (temperature, lighting, water motion, and water chemistry).

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There is quite a pool of coral parasite research available, but these research articles are disjointed and scattered among the internet and some obscure journals. Early books for hobbyists have briefly examined coral predators and parasites (Wilkens, 1990; Wilkens and Berkholz, 1986; Sprung and Delbeek, 1997; Delbeek and Sprung, 1994; Delbeek and Sprung, 2005), yet parasitic copepods are only briefly discussed. The goal of this article is to consolidate some of these resources in a concise reference. With this said, we know relatively little about coral parasites, although this article will examine almost 250 species belonging to over 30 genera that are known parasites of stony corals. There are probably thousands of coral parasites yet to be scientifically described.

Bear in mind that an observation made in an aquarium has a fair chance of being a first, and I encourage hobbyists to document their experiences, and truly appreciate those hobbyists who have shared their observations with me.

Before we begin our discussion, perhaps a quick review of terms (pertinent to this and following articles) is in order:

Commensal:
Organisms living in, or, or with another without injury or harm to the other.
Copepod:
Small aquatic crustaceans of the Subclass Copepoda, usually having 6 pairs of legs. Some copepods are parasites.
Ectoparasite:
A parasite living on the exterior of its host.
Endoparasite:
An internal parasite.
Flatworm:
Worms of the phylum Platyhelminthes. Some are parasitic.
Nudibranch:
Literally ‘naked gills’ – these mollusks (suborder Nudibranchia) often have branched respiratory organs on their backs and/or sides. Some nudibranchs eat corals.
Parasite:
An organism that derives nutriment from another organism (known as the host), and at the expense of the host. From the Greek work parasitos, literally ‘one who eats at another’s table’.
Predator:
An organism that survives by consuming other organisms.
Symbiosis:
Organisms mutually benefiting from living on, in, or with another.
Symbiont:
A partner in symbiosis.

Here we report on coral parasites that have rather specific dietary requirements, how to control them, and other observations.

Copepods

Copepods (meaning “oar feet”) are crustaceans and are found in an astounding number of environments, including wet terrestrial leave litter, wet leaves, fresh water lakes, ponds, and streams, salt lakes, and numerous marine environments ranging from the arctic to tropical environs. Their adult size is small (up to about ~3.5mm – ~1/8″ – for coral parasites) but more often smaller, with females usually larger than males. Careful examination will usually reveal them to the unaided eye, but be aware some are transparent or assume the color of the host.

Copepods have a tough exoskeleton that is shed as the animal grows. Sub-adult and many adult copepods have a single eye which is usually red in transmitted light (that is, under a microscope). Antennae (two sets), maxillipeds, and a set of secondary maxilla can collect and push food to the mandible. Food is processed in an intestine (often of a different color from the body); waste is discharged through an opening in the anal segment. Egg sacs are projections of the genital segment in females. Swimming legs are articulated appendages of the metasome (a subsection of the prosome). Two ‘tails’ (fural rami) radiate from a structure called the caudal ramus.

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Figure 2. Copepod anatomy. These terms should be familiar to those wishing to identify parasitic copepods.

Copepods are usually present, at least to some degree, in marine aquaria. They serve as food sources for many marine animals and their presence is generally beneficial. Live, frozen, or freeze-dried copepods are often added to aquaria as sustenance for fishes and marine invertebrates.

Most copepods feed on bacteria, diatoms or other small food particles. However, some have specialized diets and are associated with specific animals, including soft and stony corals, gorgonians, Tridacna clams, and so on.

Parasitic Copepods

Some copepod species are known parasites of stony corals, soft corals, anemones, Tridacna clams, starfish, and many other invertebrates, although the number of parasitic bugs is small when compared to the number of non-parasitic copepods (parasitic copepods are perhaps 15% of the number of ‘bugs’ known to inhabit invertebrates, according to copepod guru Arthur Humes). It is popular among hobbyists to lump parasitic crustaceans into loose categories called ‘red bugs’ and ‘black bugs’. In addition, red bugs are typically ascribed by hobbyists to a single species (Tegastes acroporanus – although this ‘bug’ is officially described as occurring in only a single coral species – the Pacific stony coral Acropora florida), due in large part by an article written in 2002 by Ron Shimek. Actually, corals can be infested externally or internally by quite a number of parasitic copepod genera, including Alteuthellopsis,
Xarifia, Stockia, Humesiella, Tegastes, Parategastes, Orstomella, Zazaranus, and many others. See Table One.

See Table Two at the end of this article for a listing of Coral Hosts and Copepod Parasites (by species).

Table One. A concise listing of parasitic copepods found on or in stony corals. There are at least 240 copepod species known to feed on stony corals.
GenusFamilyOrder# Species
AcontiophorusSiphonostomatoidaAsterocheridae1
AlteuthellopsisHarpacticoidaPeltidiidae1
AmardaPoecilostomatoidaAnchimolgidae4
AnchimolgusPoecilostomatoidaAnchimolgidae32
AndrianellusPoecilostomatoidaAnchimolgidae2
Armadopsis*PoecilostomatoidaLichmolgidae1
AsterocheresSiphonostomatoidaAsterocheridae1
CerioxynusPoecilostomatoidaLichomolgidae6
CorallonoxiaCyclopoidaCorallovexiidae2
CorallovexiaCyclopoidaCorallovexiidae8
DiallagomolgusPoecilostomatoidaRhynchomolgidae2
DumbeanaPoecilostomatoidaAnchimolgidae1
EcphysarionPoecilostomatoidaAnchimolgidae3
GelastomolgusPoecilostomatoida1
HaplomolgusPoecilostomatoidaAnchimolgidae3
HemicyclopsPoecilostomatoidaClausidiiae1
HumesiellaPoecilostomatoidaAnchimolgidae1
KombiaPoecilostomatoidaRhynchomolgidae5
LipochaetesPoecilostomatoidaAnchimolgidae1
LipochrusPoecilostomatoidaXarifidae1
MonomolgusPoecilostomatoidaRhynchomolgidae4
NumboaPoecilostomatoidaRhynchomolgidae1
OdontomolgusPoecilostomatoidaAnchimolgidae17
OrstomellaPoecilostomatoidaXarifidae3
PanjakusPoecilostomatoidaAnchimolgidae11
ParategastesHarpacticoidaTegastidae1
PrionomolgusPoecilostomatoidaAnchimolgidae1
RakotoaPoecilostomatoidaAnchimolgidae2
RavahinaPoecilostomatoidaRhynchomolgidae1
SchedomolgusPoecilostomatoidaAnchimolgidae13
ScyphuligerPoecilostomatoidaAnchimolgidae14
SpaniomolgusPoecilostomatoidaRhynchomolgidae3
StockmyzonSiphonostomatoidaAsterocheridae2
TegastesHarpacticoidaTegastidae4
UnicispinaPoecilostomatoidaAnchimolgidae1
WedanusPoecilostomatoidaRhynchomolgidae1
XarifiaPoecilostomatoidaXarifidae86
XenomolgusPoecilostomatoidaRhynchomolgidae1
ZazaranusPoecilostomatoidaXarifidae1
*I have been unable to locate further info on Armadopsis and
assume the name is no longer valid.

For those wishing to identify parasitic copepods, there are a number of prerequisites. Infinite patience will be required to accurately identify most of these animals, although getting an ID to the genus level is fairly easy with certain bugs. A quality microscope is a must. Preferably, a digital camera and microscope adapter will supply photo documentation for further analyses utilizing existing keys for parasitic copepods (see ‘References’, below).

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Geographical Distribution

Copepods are found throughout the world’s aquatic environments, ranging from salt lakes and tropical oceans to icy polar waters and areas around deep-sea thermal vents.

Previous popular literature in aquaria publications has generally regarded parasitic copepods to be germane only to the Pacific Ocean. Not so – copepods considered to be parasitic of various coral genera are pandemic. See Figure 3.

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Figure 3. General geographical distribution of a few parasitic copepod genera.

As Figure 3 attempts to demonstrate, coral parasites are partitioned geographically. Atlantic genera are not closely related to those parasites found in the Pacific.

Parasitism versus Predation

A thin line separates parasites from predators. A predator simply feeds upon its prey and is not concerned of its prey’s ultimate fate (other than it supplies nutriment when eaten), but a parasite generally benefits from its relationship (such as it is), while its host suffers and may become weakened and more susceptible to life-threatening ailments. The parasite benefits only as long as its host is alive.

The degree of injury or trauma inflicted by the parasite to its host is therefore important, and Sparks (1985) describes invertebrates’ responses to injury as follows:

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  • Inflammation (defined as reactive change subsequent to injury).
  • Wound repair involving removal of necrotic tissues and restoration of its function.

Obviously, for a parasite’s strategy to succeed, the amount of injury must not exceed the host’s ability to repair the damage. Which begs the question: At what point does a population of parasites begin to pose a life-endangering threat to the host? The answer surprised me – some clams’ health is threatened when only 5 – repeat 5 – parasites reside on or within them (Sparks, 1985). On the other hand, Humes (1994) reports a small stony coral colony (Pocillopora damicornis – 16 cm diameter or about 6 inches) was infested with 668 parasitic Xarifia quinaria copepods.

Symptoms of Parasitic Copepod Infestations

Symptoms demonstrated by the host of parasite infestations might not be immediately apparent. Although external parasitic copepods are not particularly difficult to spot, it does require good powers of observation to detect their presence. To make matters worse, many copepods can live within coral corals’ polyps, making their presence undetectable (see below for a known method of infestation used by the xarifid Xarifia obesa).

A coral’s symptoms of internal parasites depend upon the number of parasites. Often, a general lack of wellness is observed, with loss of vibrant coloration and poor polyp expansion, and loss of zooxanthellae (perhaps a result of predation by the parasite) being possible responses to parasitic infestations.

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Figure 4. The Montipora specimen (center) is infested with ‘black bugs’. While polyp expansion is still good, it lacks its normal vivid coloration. Photo courtesy of Steve Ruddy (www.coralreefecosystems.com).

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Figure 5. Copepods on a Montipora specimen. Notice the eye spots. Photo courtesy of Steve Ruddy (www.coralreefecosystems.com).

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Figure 6. Another photo of the Montipora copepods. Note the segmentation, color, eye spot, and first antennae. Photo courtesy of Steve Ruddy (www.coralreefecosystems.com).

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Figure 7. A photomicrograph of a ‘black bug’ found on a Montipora specimen – it appears to be a Tegastes or Parategastes species. These bugs are small – only about 0.34mm, and will be discussed in Part 3 of this series. Photo by the author.

Copepods – Vectors of Disease?

Ivanenko and Smurov (1996) raise the interesting possibility that copepods might introduce pathogens to its host. This could perhaps explain why some copepods infestations are relatively harmless, while seemingly mild cases of parasitism cause rapid decline and death of the host. As a footnote, the pathogenic bacteria Vibrio has been found attached to some copepods’ exoskeletons (though not specifically ‘coral’ copepods or any Vibrio species known to infect scleractinians).

Food for thought here.

Comments about Information in the Following Database

The following lists include information on copepod maximum sizes, specimen color, as well as drawings. First, my renderings are crude reproductions of excellent camera lucida drawings made by copepod researchers Humes, Stock and others. In all cases, those wishing to identify copepods should refer to the original papers.

  • Maximum lengths are reported for most of the following taxa. These lengths do not include the length of the ‘tail’ (fural rami). Bear in mind that these listings are based on sometimes limited observations of just a few specimens. In a couple of cases, only one sex of a particular species has been collected, and sometimes described from a single specimen
  • Color is listed for many taxa, and these are based on the apparent color of the copepod when light is transmitted through a specimen by a microscope lamp. Color due to transmitted light is different from the color when light is reflected. To further complicate matters, the parasite might incorporate into its tissues those pigments obtained from the host (as is probably the case in red Orstomella copepods feeding on Favia tissues). Some of these pigments might be fluorescent (see Figure 140) and spectral quality of the light falling upon the animal and the quantum yield of the pigment can alter the perceived color.
  • Coral species are listed as described in the original papers. Coral taxonomy remains in a constant state of flux, and I have made little attempt to revise the descriptions as listed in the original journal papers.
  • Copepod classifications are occasionally revised, and this has occurred since some of the initial descriptions were published. For example, parasites of the genus Lichomolgus, although plentiful in early publications, have all been assigned to other genera. This website was used as a reference of revisions: WoRMS (World Register of Marine Species) at http://www.marinespecies.org/
  • Lateral views (taken from the side), dorsal views (from the top looking down) and ventral views (from the bottom looking up) reveal differing portraits of ‘bugs’. Be aware that the angle of observation can show profoundly differing portraits.
  • Do not assume that one bug is representative of all those on a coral colony. Humes (1994) states that single colonies of Acropora hyacinthus, A. gravida, and Montipora undata were each found to host up to 9 parasitic Xarifia species.
  • Arthur Humes, the late guru of copepods, found that identifying copepods to the species level is much easier if female specimens are used.

Now that we have some background on copepods, we can begin our discussion of coral parasites.

Stony Coral Parasites

Copepods of Order Cyclopoida

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Corallonoxia and Corallovexia have been described from only Atlantic corals. You may wonder why Atlantic parasites are included in an article for reef hobbyists since most but not all corals from this regional are illegal to possess. A few corals (such as Manicina areolata, sea whips, sea fans, etc. or those found on ‘farmed’ live rock) are legally available, hence the inclusion of Atlantic parasites here.

Corallonoxia baki

  • Host: Eusmilia fastigata
  • Order Cyclopoida
  • Family Corallovexiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: West Indies (Atlantic)
  • Reference: Stock, 1975

Corallonoxia longicauda

  • Host: Meandrina meandrites
  • Order Cyclopoida
  • Family Corallovexiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: West Indies (Atlantic)
  • Reference: Stock, 1975

Corallovexia brevibrachium

  • Host: Diploria labyrinthformis
  • Order Cyclopoida
  • Family Corallovexiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: West Indies (Atlantic)
  • Reference: Stock, 1975

Corallovexia dorospina

  • Host: Montastrea cavernosa
  • Order Cyclopoida
  • Family Corallovexiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: West Indies (Atlantic)
  • Reference: Stock, 1975
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Figure 8. Montastrea cavernosa, an Atlantic coral species, may be infested with the parasitic copepod Corallovexia dorospina. Photo courtesy Jake Adams and www.coralIDea.com

Corallovexia kristenseni

  • Host: Colpophyllia natans
  • Order Cyclopoida
  • Family Corallovexiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: West Indies (Atlantic)
  • Reference: Stock, 1975

Corallovexia longibrachium

  • Host: Manicina areolata
  • Order Cyclopoida
  • Family Corallovexiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: West Indies (Atlantic)
  • Reference: Stock, 1975
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Figure 9. Manicina areolata is the preferred host of the parasite Corallovexia longibrachium. These Atlantic corals are now legally available in the pet trade. Photo courtesy of Jake Adams and www.coralIDea.com.

Corallovexia mediobrachium

  • Host: Diploria strigosa
  • Order Cyclopoida
  • Family Corallovexiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: West Indies (Atlantic)
  • Reference: Stock, 1975

Corallovexia mixtibrachium

  • Host: Colpophyllia natans
  • Order Cyclopoida
  • Family Corallovexiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: West Indies (Atlantic)
  • Reference: Stock, 1975

Corallovexia similis

  • Host: Acropora palmata
  • Order Cyclopoida
  • Family Corallovexiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: West Indies (Atlantic)
  • Reference: Stock, 1975
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Figure 10. The endangered coral Acropora palmata is sometimes home to the parasitic copepod Corallovexia similis. These corals may someday be available to hobbyists as techniques of raising planula larvae are refined. Photo courtesy of Jake Adams and www.CoralIDea.com.

Corallovexia ventrospinosa

  • Host: Montastrea brasiliana
  • Order Cyclopoida
  • Family Corallovexiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: West Indies (Atlantic)
  • Reference: Stock, 1975

Stony Coral Parasites

Copepods of Order Poecilostomatoida

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Now, to begin our brief review of known parasites of Pacific corals, beginning with:

Amarda compta

  • Host: Favia sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.20mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.85mm
  • Color: Opaque, red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1972
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Figure 11. Amarda compta, dorsal view.

Amarda cultrata

  • Host: Favia sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.68mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.37mm
  • Color: Opaque, red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1972
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Figure 12. Amarda cultrata, male, ventral view.

Amarda curvus

  • Host: Goniastrea retiformis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2007
  • Amarda goniastraea
  • Host: Goniastrea retiformis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Anchimolgus abbreviatus

  • Host: Acrhelia horrescens
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1991
  • Anchimolgus angustus
  • Host: Gardinoseris planulata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1992

Anchimolgus brevarius

  • Host: Goniopora stokesi
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1995
  • Anchimolgus compressus
  • Host: Galaxea fascicularis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1996

Anchimolgus conformatus

  • Host: Goniopora sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1995
  • Anchimolgus contractus
  • Host: Galaxea fascicularis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1979

Anchimolgus convexus

  • Host: Parahalometra robusta
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1978
  • Anchimolgus digitatus
  • Host: Goniopora sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.0mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.62mm
  • Color: Translucent, dark red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Ho, 1968a
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Figure 13. Anchimolgus digitatus, a parasite of Goniopora specimens.

Anchimolgus eparmatoides

  • Host: Gardinoseris planulata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1972

Anchimolgus exsertus

  • Host: Echinophyllia horrida
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1991

Anchimolgus gibberulus

  • Host: Gardinoseris planulata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1992

Anchimolgus gigas

  • Host: Goniopora stokesi
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1995

Anchimolgus gracilipes

  • Host: Pavona danai
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2007

Anchimolgus hastatus

  • Host: Fungia sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2007

Anchimolgus latens

  • Host: Fungia echinata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1978

Anchimolgus maximus

  • Host: Fungia cocinnia
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003
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Figure 14. Fungia cocinnia is subject to stress by parasitic copepods. Photo courtesy Steve Ruddy and www.coralreefecosystems.com

Anchimolgus mimeticus

  • Host: Goniopora sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1995

Anchimolgus moluccanus

  • Host: Galaxea fascicularis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1996

Anchimolgus multidentatus

  • Host: Alveopora catalai
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Anchimolgus nastuas

  • Host: Galaxea fascicularis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1996

Anchimolgus noumensis

  • Host: Seriatopora hystrix
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Anchimolgus orectus

  • Host: Fungia paumotensis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1978

Anchimolgus pandus

  • Host: Fungia echinata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1978

Anchimolgus paragensis

  • Host: Hydnophora microconus
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2007

Anchimolgus prolixipes

  • Host: Porites (andrewsi?) and Porites nigrescens
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.15mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.85mm
  • Color: Translucent to opaque, red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Ho, 1968a
image033.jpg

Figure 15. Anchimolgus prolixipes, dorsal view.

Anchimolgus punctilis

  • Host: Pocillopora damicornis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1978

Anchimolgus stellus

  • Host: Gardinoseris planulata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1972

Anchimolgus tanaus

  • Host: Acrhelia horrescens
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1991

Anchimolgus tenuipes

  • Host: Seriatopora hystrix
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Anchimolgus tridentatus

  • Host: Echinopora lamellosa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Andrianellus exsertidens

  • Host: Favia sp., Platygyra daedala
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.33mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.22mm
  • Color: Opaque, red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973
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Figure 16. Andrianellus exsertidens, lateral view.

Andrianellus papillipes

  • Host: Platygyra ryukyuensis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2007

Armadopsis merulinae

  • Host: Merulina ampliata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.57mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.41mm
  • Color: Opaque, intestine orange-red, red eye, egg sacs gray.
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1974
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Figure 17. Armadopsis merulinae, female with eggs, dorsal view.

Cerioxynus alatus

  • Host: Favia favus
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.60mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.39mm
  • Color: Opaque, intestine orange-brown, red eye, egg sacs gray.
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1974

Cerioxynus bandensis

  • Host: Favites virens
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1979
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Figure 18. Cerioxymus alatus, found in association with the stony coral Favia.

Cerioxynus favitocolus

  • Host: Favites halicora
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.12mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.88mm
  • Color: Opaque, alimentary canal slightly brown, red eye, egg sacs gray.
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1974
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Figure 19. Cerioxymus favitocolus, female without egg masses, lateral view. After Humes, 1974.

image043.jpg

Figure 20. Cerioxymus favitocolus, female with egg masses, dorsal view.

Cerioxynus moluccensis

  • Host: Favites pentagonia
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Locality: Great Barrier Reef
  • Reference: Humes, 1979

Cerioxynus montastreae

  • Host: Montastrea curta
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Locality: Great Barrier Reef
  • Reference: Humes, 1994

Cerioxynus oulophylliae

  • Host: Oulophyllia crispa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia
  • Reference: Humes, 1994

Dumbeana undulatipes

  • Host: Psammocora togianensis and P. logianensis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Locality: Sabiura
  • Reference: Misaki, 1978; Humes, 1996

Ecphysarion ampullulum

  • Host: Acropora rosaria
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1993

Ecphysarion lobophorum

  • Host: Acropora scherzeriana, Acropora cytheria, Acropora florida, Acropora sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.36mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.19mm
  • Color: Amber, red eye, egg sacs gray
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Described as Lichomolgus lobophorus, Humes and Ho, 1968a
  • Also described elsewhere as Schedomolgus lobophorus.
image045.jpg

Figure 21. Ecphysarion lobophorum, female with eggs, dorsal view.

Ecphysarion spinulatum

  • Host: Acropora palifera
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1993

Gelastomolgus spondyli

  • Host: Plerogyra sp.
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.16mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.59mm
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973
  • Comment: There is some suspicion that Plerogyra is not the primary host of this copepod, and that its presence may have been accidental.
image047.jpg

Figure 22. Gelastomolgus spondyli, dorsal view.

Haplomolgus incolumis

  • Host: Montipora caliculata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes and Ho, 1968

Haplomolgus montiporae

  • Host: Montipora sinensis, Montipora stellata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.89mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.90mm
  • Color: Slightly amber, red eye, egg sacs grayish-black
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Ho, 1968a
image049.jpg

Figure 23. Haplomolgus montiporae, dorsal view.

Haplomolgus subdeficiens

  • Host: Montipora undata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1978

Humesiella corallicola

  • Host: Hydnophora sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: SE Indian Coast
  • Reference: Sebastian and Pillai, 1973
image051.jpg

Figure 24. Humesiella corallicola, male, dorsal view, a parasite of the stony coral Hydnophora. After Sebastian and Pillai, 1973.

Family: Lichomolgidae: Lichomolgus species are often mentioned in early reference works. Since those publications, many species have been assigned to other genera.

Lichomolgus arcuatipes: See Schedomolgus arcuatipes

Lichomolgus campulus: See Odontomolgus campulus

Lichomolgus crassus: See Spaniomolgus crassus

Lichomolgus digitatus: SeeAnchiomolgus digitatus

Lichomolgus geminus: See Spaniomolgus geminus

Lichomolgus prolixipes: See Anchiomolgus prolixipes

Lichomolgus lobophorus: See Ecphysarion lobophorum (Also described as Schedomolgus lobophorus)

Lipochaetes extrusus

  • Host: Psammocora logianensis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1996

Odontomolgus actinophorus

  • Host: Pavona angularis, Pavona angulata, Pavona cactus, Pavona danai, and Pavona venusta
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): ?
  • Color: Red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973
image053.jpg

Figure 25. Odontomolgus actinophorus, female with eggs.

Odontomolgus bulbalis

  • Host: Merulina ampliata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1991

Odontomolgus campulus

  • Host: Alveopora sp. and Goniopora sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.26mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.17mm
  • Color: Slightly opaque, red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Ho, 1968a
image055.jpg

Figure 26. Odontomolgus campulus, an associate of at least one Alveopora species.

Odontomolgus decens

  • Host: Heliofungia actiniformis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes & Stock, 1972
image057.jpg

Figure 27. Odontomolgus decens can infest Heliofungia actiniformis.

Odontomolgus exilipes

  • Host: Psammocora samoensis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Odontomolgus flammeus

  • Host: Fungia sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2007

Odontomolgus forhani

  • Host: Montipora compressa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1972

Odontomolgus fultus

  • Host: Halomitra pileus
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1972

Odontomolgus geminus

  • Host: Psammocora samoensis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Odontomolgus mucosus

  • Host: Gardineroseris planulata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2006

Odontomolgus mundulus

  • Host: Alveopora mortenseni
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1974

Odontomolgus parvus

  • Host: Goniastrea retiformis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2007

Odontomolgus pavonus

  • Host: Pavona danai
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2007

Odontomolgus pumulis

  • Host: Gardineroseris planulata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1992

Odontomolgus rhadinus

  • Host: Psammocora contigua, Psammocora spp. and Pavona sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): ?
  • Color: Red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973

Odontomolgus scitulus

  • Host: Fungia fungites
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1973

Odontomolgus unioviger

  • Host: Gardineroseris planulata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2006

Panjakus bidentis

  • Host: Pocillopora verrucosa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2004

Panjakus directis

  • Host: Leptoria tenuis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1995

Panjakus eumeces

  • Host: Hydnophora rigida
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1991
image059.jpg

Figure 28. Hydnophora colonies are subject to infestation by a number of parasitic copepods. Photo courtesy of Steve Ruddy and www.coralreefecosystems.com.

Panjakus fastigatus

  • Host: Platygyra ryukyuensis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2005

Panjakus hydnophorae

  • Hosts: Hydnophora exesa, Hydnophora tenella, Hydnophora sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.42mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.33mm
  • Color: Brownish opaque with a few reddish-brown spots, red eye, egg sacs gray
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973
image061.jpg

Figure 29. Panjakus hydnophorae, a parasite of Hydnophora species.

Panjakus iratus

  • Host: Hydnophora microconus
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2005

Panjakus necopinus

  • Host: Leptoria tenuis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1995

Panjakus parvipes

  • Host: Platygyra ryukyuensis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2005

Panjakus platygyrae

  • Hosts: Platygyra lamellina, Platygyra daedala
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.53mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.36mm
  • Color: Opaque, intestine slightly yellowish, dark red eye
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973
image063.jpg

Figure 30. Panjakus platygyrae, dorsal view.

Panjakus saccipes

  • Host: Hydnophora microconus
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2005

Prionomolgus lanceolatus

  • Host: Pachyseris speciosa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.42mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.08mm
  • Color: Translucent, red eye, egg sacs gray
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Ho, 1968a
image065.jpg

Figure 31. Prionomolgus lanceolatus, dorsal view.

Rakotoa ceramensis

  • Host: Favites pentagona
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1979

Rakotoa proteus

  • Host: Favia sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.64mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.55mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, intestine is reddish, eye is not visible
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973
image067.jpg

Figure 32. Rakotoa proteus, a parasite of Favia stony corals.

Schedomolgus arcuatipes

  • Host: Acropora palifera
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.11mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.28mm
  • Color: Translucent to opaque, red eye, egg sacs gray
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Described as Lichomolgus arcuatipes, Humes and Ho, 1968a
image069.jpg

Figure 33. Schedomolgus arcuatipes, male, dorsal view.

Schedomolgus dumbensis

  • Host: Fungia fungites
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Schedomolgus exiliculus

  • Host: Acropora palifera
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1993

Schedomolgus idanus

  • Host: Acropora patula
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1993

Schedomolgus insignellus

  • Host: Acropora valida
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1972

Schedomolgus lobophorus: See Ecphysarion lobophorum. Also described as Lichomolgus lobophorum

Schedomolgus majusculus

  • Host: Acropora rosaria
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1972

Schedomolgus tener

  • Host: Fungia echinata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1993

Schedomolgus tenuicaudatus

  • Host: Acropora Rosaria
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Schedomolgus walteri

  • Host: Lobophyllia corymbosa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Scyphuliger cyphuliger

  • Host: Acropora exilis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1993

Scyphuliger concavipes

  • Host: Acropora hyacinthus
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1991

Scyphuliger eumorphus

  • Host: Acropora hyacinthus
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1993

Scyphuliger humesi

  • Host: Acropora squarrosa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2004

Scyphuliger karangmmiensis

  • Host: Acropora intermedia
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2007

Scyphuliger latus

  • Host: Acropora exilis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Scyphuliger longicaudus

  • Host: Acropora convexa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Scyphuliger manifestus

  • Host: Acropora hyacinthus
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1991

Scyphuliger paucisuruculus

  • Host: Acropora exilis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Scyphuliger pennatus

  • Host: Acropora corymbosa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Scyphuliger pilosus

  • Host: Acropora corymbosa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Scyphuliger placious

  • Host: Acropora squarrosa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2004

Scyphuliger tenuatis

  • Host: Acropora cymbicyanthus
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1990

Scyphuliger vicinus

  • Host: Acropora squarrosa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2004

Stockia indica

  • Host: Favia sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1994

Unicispina latigenitalis

  • Host: Acropora palifera
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1993

Order: Poecilostomatoida

  • Family: Clausidiiae
  • Genera: Hemicyclops

Hemicyclops regalis

  • Host: Porites lobata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Clausidiiae
  • Location: Panama (Pacific)
  • Reference: Humes, 1994

Order: Poecilostomatoida

  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Genera: Diallagomolgus, Kombia, Mandobius, Monomolgus, Ravahina, Spaniomolgus, Xenomolgus, Wedanus

Diallagomolgus productus

  • Host: Cyphastrea chalcidicum and Cyphastrea gardineri
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.43mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.25mm
  • Color: Opaque with a few reddish globules in prosome (body), intestine brown, red eye, egg sacs gray
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1979
image071.jpg

Figure 34. Diallagomolgus productus, male, dorsal view.

Diallagomolgus vicinus

  • Host: Cyphastrea chalcidicum
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.27mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.09mm
  • Color: Opaque, intestine brown, red eye, egg sacs gray
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1979
image073.jpg

Figure 35. Diallagomolgus vicinus found onCyphastrea chalcidicum.

Kombia angulata

  • Host: Psammocora sp., Porites nigrescens, and Porites somaliensis
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Location: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1962
image001.jpg

Figure 36. Kombia angulata. Kombia species are known parasites of Porites and Psammocora corals.

Kombia avitus

  • Host: Porites sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2007

Kombia curvata

  • Host: Porites lutea
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Reference: Nair and Pillai, 1986

Kombia imminens

  • Host: Porites monticulosa
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1962

Kombia incrassata

  • Host: Porites lobata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1984

Mandobius regalis

  • Host: Pectinia lactuca
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1994

Monomolgus baculigeres

  • Host: Porites nigrescens
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1979

Monomolgus psammocorae

  • Host: Psammocora sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): ?
  • Color: Red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973

Monomolgus torulus

  • Host: Porites lobata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1984

Monomolgus unihastatus

  • Host: Porites (andrewsi?), Porites (nigrescens?), Porites sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): ?
  • Color: Red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973
image076.jpg

Figure 37. Monomolgus unihastatus, female, dorsal view.

Numboa porosa

  • Host: Psammocora togianensis
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: ?
  • Reference: Humes 1997

Ravahina tumida

Host: Porites (andrewsi?)

  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): Unknown
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973
image078.jpg

Figure 38. Ravahina tumida, a ‘specialist’ parasite of a specific Porites species.

Spaniomolgus compositus

  • Host: Seriatopora octoptera, Seriatopora subseriata, Seriatopora sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973
image080.jpg

Figure 39. Spaniomolgus compositus, a parasite of Seriatopora species.

Spaniomolgus crassus

  • Host: Stylophora pistillata, Stylophora mordax, Acropora sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.44mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.25mm
  • Color: Translucent to opaque with reddish amber areas at base of antennae, red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Described as Lichomolgus crassus, Humes and Ho, 1968a
image082.jpg

Figure 40. Spaniomolgus crassus found on some SPS corals.

Spaniomolgus geminus

  • Host: Stylophora pistillata, Stylophora mordax, Stylophora sp. and Acropora sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.61mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.55mm
  • Color: Translucent, red eye, egg sacs Gray
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Described as Lichomolgus geminus, Humes and Ho, 1968a
image084.jpg

Figure 41. Spaniomolgus geminus, lateral view.

Wedanus inconstans

  • Host: Goniopora tenuidens
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1978

Xenomolgus varius

  • Host: Porites sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.76mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.21mm
  • Color: Unknown
  • Locality: Maritius Islands
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973
image086.jpg

Figure 42. Xenomolgus varius, dorsal view.

image088.jpg

Figure 43. Xenomolgus varius, lateral view.

This concludes our discussion of stony coral parasites for this time. We’ll examine other ‘bugs’ in next month’s installment. Questions? Comments? Please respond in the comment section below.

Table Two. Listing of Coral Hosts and Copepod Parasites (by species).
CoralParasite
Acrhelia horrescensAnchimolgus abbreviatus
Acrhelia horrescensAnchimolgus tenuipes
Acropora convexaScyphuliger longicaudus
Acropora corymbosaScyphuliger pennatus
Acropora corymbosaScyphuliger pilosus
Acropora cymbicyanthusScyphuliger tenuatis
Acropora exiguaEcphysarion lobophorum
Acropora exilisScyphuliger aristoides
Acropora exilisScyphuliger latus
Acropora exilisScyphuliger paucisurculus
Acropora hyacinthusScyphuliger concavipes
Acropora hyacinthusScyphuliger eumorphus
Acropora hyacinthusScyphuliger manifestus
Acropora intermediaScyphuliger karangmiensis
Acropora paliferaEcphysarion spinulatum
Acropora paliferaSchedomolgus exciliculus
Acropora paliferaUnicispina latigentalis
Acropora palmataCorallavexia similis
Acropora palmataCorallovexia sp.
Acropora patulaSchedomolgus idanus
Acropora rosariaEcphysarion ampullulum
Acropora squarrosa (millepora)Scyphuliger humesi
Acropora squarrosa (millepora)Scyphuliger placidus
Acropora squarrosa (millepora)Scyphuliger vicinus
Alveopora catalaiAnchimolgus multidentatus
Alveopora mortensiOdontomolgus mundulus
Colpophyllia natansCorallavexia kristenseni
Colpophyllia natansCorallavexia mixtibrachium
Colpophyllia natansCorallovexia mediobrachium
Cyphastrea sp.Diallagomolgus sp.
Diploria clivosaCorallovexia mediobrachium
Diploria labyrinthformisCorallavexia brevibrachium
Diploria strigosaCorallavexia mediobrachium
Echinopora horridaAnchimolgus exsertus
Echinopora lamellosaAnchimolgus tridentatus
Eusmilia fastigataCorallonoxia baki
Favia favusCerioxynus alatus
Favia sp.Amarda sp.
Favia sp.Anchimolgus sp.
Favia sp.Andrianellus exsertidens
Favia sp.Rakotoa proteus
Favia sp.Stockia sp.
Favites halicoraCerioxynus faviticolus
Favites pentagonaCerioxynus moluccensis
Favites pentagonaRakotoa ceramensis
Favites virensCerioxynus bandensis
Fungia concinnaAnchimolgus maximus
Fungia echinataAnchimolgus latens
Fungia echinataAnchimolgus pandus
Fungia echinataSchedomolgus tener
Fungia fungitesOdontomolgus scitulus
Fungia fungitesSchedomolgus dumbensis
Fungia paumotensisAnchimolgus orectus
Fungia paumotensisAnchimolgus punctilis
Fungia speciesAnchimolgus hastatus
Fungia speciesOdontomolgus flammeus
Galaxea fascicularisAnchimolgus compressus
Galaxea fascicularisAnchimolgus contractus
Galaxea fascicularisAnchimolgus molccanus
Galaxea fascicularisAnchimolgus nastuas
Gardineroseris planulataAnchimolgus angustus
Gardineroseris planulataAnchimolgus eparmatoides
Gardineroseris planulataAnchimolgus giiberulus
Gardineroseris planulataAnchimolgus setellus
Gardineroseris planulataOdontomolgus mucosus
Gardineroseris planulataOdontomolgus pumulis
Gardineroseris planulataOdontomolgus unioviger
Goniastrea retiformisAmarda curvus
Goniastrea retiformisAmarda goniastraea
Goniastrea retiformisOdontomolgus parvus
Goniopora minorWedanus inconstans
Goniopora minorWedanus formosanus
Goniopora speciesAnchimolgus conformatus
Goniopora speciesAnchimolgus mimeticus
Goniopora stokesiAnchimolgus brevarius
Goniopora stokesiAnchimolgus gigas
Goniopora tenuidensWedanus inconstans
Halomitra pileusOdontomolgus fultus
Heliofungia actinoformisOdontomolgus decens
Hydnophora exesaPanjakus hydnophorae
Hydnophora microconusAnchimolgus paragensis
Hydnophora microconusPanjakus iratus
Hydnophora microconusPanjakus saccipes
Hydnophora rigidaPanjakus eumeces
Hydnophora sp.Humesiella corallicola
Hydnophora sp.Panjakus hydnophorae
Hydnophora sp.Panjakus sp.
Hydnophora tenellaPanjakus hydnophorae
Leptoria tenuisPanjakus directus
Leptoria tenuisPanjakus necopinus
Manicina areolataCorallavexia longibrachium
Meandrina meandritesCorallonoxia baki
Meandrina meandritesCorallovexia sp.
Merulina ampliataOdontomolgus bulbalis
Montastrea brasilianaCorallavexia ventrospina
Montastrea cavernosaCorallavexia dorsospinosa
Montastrea cavernosaCorallavexia dorsospinosa minor
Montastrea cavernosaCorallovexia sp.
Montastrea curtaCerioxynus montastreae
Montipora caliculataHaplomolgus incolumis
Montipora compressaOdontomolgus forhani
Montipora undataHaplomolgus subdeficiens
Mycetophyllia lamarckianaCorallovexia sp.
Mycetophyllia lamarckianaCorallovexia sp. #2
Oulophyllia crispaCerioxynus oulophillia
Parahalomitra robustaAnchimolgus convexus
Pavona angularisOdontomolgus actinophorus
Pavona angulataOdontomolgus actinophorus
Pavona cactusOdontomolgus actinophorus
Pavona danaiAnchimolgus gracilipes
Pavona danaiOdontomolgus actinophorus
Pavona danaiOdontomolgus pavonus
Pavona venustaOdontomolgus actinophorus
Pectinia lactucaMandobius regalis
Platygyra astreiformisPanjakus platygyrae
Platygyra daedalaAndrianellus exsertidens
Platygyra daedalaPanjakus daedala
Platygyra lamellinaPanjakus platygyrae
Platygyra ryukyuensisAndrianellus papillipes
Platygyra ryukyuensisPanjakus fastigatus
Platygyra ryukyuensisPanjakus parvipes
Platygyra sp.Panjakus sp.
Pocillopora damicornisAnchimolgus partenuides
Pocillopora verrucosaPanjakus bidentis
Porites (andrewsi?)Monomolgus unihastatus
Porites (nigrescens?)Monomolgus unihastatus
Porites lobataHemicyclops regalis
Porites lobataKombia incrassata
Porites lobataMonomolgus torulus
Porites luteaKombia curvata
Porites monticulosaKombia imminens
Porites nigrescensMonomolgus baculigeres
Porites sp.Kombia avitus
Psammocora contiguaOdontomolgus actinophorus
Psammocora contiguaOdontomolgus rhadinus
Psammocora logianensisDumbeana undulatipes
Psammocora samoensisOdontomolgus exilipes
Psammocora samoensisOdontomolgus geminus
Psammocora sp.Kombia angulata
Psammocora sp.Monomolgus psammocorae
Seriatopora hystrixAnchimolgus noumensis
Seriatopora hystrixAnchiomolgus tenuipes
Category:
  Advanced Aquarist
Dana Riddle
About

 Dana Riddle

  (120 articles)

I have been an aquarist since 1964 and a reef hobbyist since the mid-1980’s. I am the owner of a small laboratory (Riddle Aquatic Laboratories) that specializes in investigation of interactions between light and water motion & photosynthetic organisms (especially corals). The results of this research, resulting in almost 250 articles, have been published in Advanced Aquarist Online, Aquarium Frontiers, Koralle, Freshwater and Marine Aquarium, The Breeders’ Registry, Aquarium Fish, Marine Fish Monthly and others. My first article was published in a 1984 SeaScope and relayed my experiences with a refugium – an idea that would catch fire about a decade later. I have had the honor of making over 60 presentations to various groups, including national conferences such as the Marine Aquarium Conference of North America (MACNA) International Marine Aquarium Conference (IMAC), PetsFestival (Italy), regional conferences, and local clubs. I received the Marine Aquarium Society of North America (MASNA) Aquarist of the Year Award in 2011 at the MACNA conference in Des Moines.

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