Aquarium Corals: Stony Coral Parasites, Part Two: Copepods: Family Xarifiidae

Last month’s article opened this series, and this time we will continue our study of parasitic copepods belonging to Family Xarifiidae. These animals are, as a rule, larger and more numerous (species-wise) than those parasites discussed in Part One. They also tend to infest corals internally (often within the polyps) or assume the color of the coral (likely through ingestion of coral tissues), making them difficult to spot and diagnose. Worse, we are not sure if accepted methods of treating corals for parasites are effective against these bugs. Table One (at the conclusion of this article) lists Xarifiid copepods in order of coral host(s).

image001.jpg

Figure 44. Xarifia obesa, female, with egg sacs.

I’ve elected to continue the numbering protocol of Figures established in the initial article; hence the first drawing here is Figure 44. See Part One for a distribution map of some Xarifiid taxa. With that said, let’s get started.

  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    • Family: Xarifiidae
      • Genera: Lipochrus, Orstomella, Xarifia, Zazaranus

Family Xarifidae contains four genera (Xarifia, Orstomella, Lipochrus, and Zazaranus) with at least 80 described species. All species are known parasites of stony corals and some may form an association with a specific coral.

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Method of Infection (Xarifiid Copepods)

Chang and Dai (2009) made observations of a stony coral’s (Stylophora pistillata) reactions to a deliberate infection with a xarifiid crustacean. The copepods would approach the coral polyp’s mouth and apparently released a substance that made the polyp open (it is unknown if this substance mimics one that induces feeding behavior, or acts as a muscle relaxant). The copepod then rapidly enters the coral through the mouth and begins its parasitic existence. How the copepod avoids being stung and injured or killed by the tentacles’ nematocysts is unclear. It is also unclear if other coral species are infected in a similar manner. In any case, it is clear that at least some crustaceans can be internal parasites of corals.

image003.jpg

Figure 45. Orstomella faviae, male, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

Lipochrus acroporinus

  • Host: Acropora rosaria
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Reference: Humes and Dojiri, 1982

Orstomella faviae

image005.jpg

Figure 46. A beautiful Favia species. Imagine losing a coral such as this to an Orstomella infestation! Photo courtesy of Steve Ruddy and www.coralreefecosystems.com.

  • Host: Favia sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.26mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 2.24mm
  • Color: Bright Red
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Orstomella lobophylliae

  • Host: Lobophyllia corymbosa and Lobophyllia costata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.31mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.45mm
  • Color: Bright Red
    image007.jpg

    Figure 47. Orstomella lobophylliae, male, dorsal view.

  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Orstomella yaliuensis

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  • Host: Porites lutea
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Locality: Taiwan
  • Reference: Chen et al., 2009

Xarifia ablusa

  • Hosts: Acropora species, including A. ‘corymbosa’ (a complex of 5 or 6 species, possibly including A. digitifera), A. elseyi, A. rambleri, and A. rosaria.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
    image009.jpg

    Figure 48. Xarifia ablusa, female with eggs, lateral view.

  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.06mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.03mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia acicularis

  • Hosts: Pachyseris rugosa
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
    image011.jpg

    Figure 49. Xarifia acicularis, male, dorsal view.

  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.06mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.03mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, eye red
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia anomala

  • Hosts: Acropora species, including A. abrotanoides, A. convexa, A. digitifera (?), Acropora florida, A. humilis, A. hyacinthus, A. intermeda, A. palifera and at least one unidentified Acropora species.
    image013.jpg

    Figure 50. Xarifia anomala, female, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.26mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.25mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: New Caledonia, Madagascar, Moluccas
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia anopla

image015.jpg

Figure 51. Xarifia anomala, male, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

  • Hosts: Montipora undata, Montipora composita, and Montipora sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.08mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.93mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef), Madagascar, Moluccas Islands
    image017.jpg

    Figure 52. Xarifia anopla, female, lateral view.

  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia apertipes

  • Hosts: Gyrosmilia interrupta and Montipora verrucosa
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.59mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.49mm
    image019.jpg

    Figure 53. Xarifia apertipes, female, lateral view.

  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia basilica

  • Hosts: Acropora formosa, Acropora hyacinthus
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
    image021.jpg

    Figure 54. Xarifia basilica, female, dorsal view.

  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.5mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.7mm
  • Color: Brownish-gray, red eye
  • Locality: Lizard Island, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia brevicauda

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  • Host: Alveopora sp.
    image023.jpg

    Figure 55. Xarifia brevicauda, male, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.35mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.51mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia breviramea

image025.jpg

Figure 56. Xarifia breviramea

  • Host: Acropora abrotanoides, Acropora corymbosa ‘group’, Acropora exigua, Acropora florida, Acropora hyacinthus, Acropora intermedia, Acropora millepora, Acropora rambleri, and Acropora valida.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.79mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.93mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Eniwetok Atoll (Marshall Islands), Moluccas Islands, New Caledonia.
    image027.jpg

    Figure 57. Contrary to popular belief, many Acropora specimens are subject to parasite infestations (this specimen is not infested, just very attractive). Photo courtesy of Justin Miedwig and www.madfragsonline.com

  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia bullifera

  • Host: Acropora formosa (now muricata)
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.45mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.43mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye
  • Locality: Eniwetok Atoll, Moluccas Islands, New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia clavellata

  • Host: Gardinoseris planulata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
    image029.jpg

    Figure 58. Xarifia bullifera, female, lateral view.

  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.94mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.80mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye
  • Locality: Big Broadhurst Reef, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia comata

  • Host: Pocillopora eydouxi, Pocillopora verrucosa
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image031.jpg

    Figure 59. Xarifia clavellata, female, dorsal view.

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.22mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.18mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands, Madagascar, Great Barrier Reef
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
    image033.jpg

    Figure 60. Xarifia comata, female, lateral view.

Xarifia comptula

  • Host: Hydnophora exesa
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.16mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 2.62mm
    image035.jpg

    Figure 61. Xarifia comptula, female, lateral view.

  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands, Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia curtata

  • Host: Hydnophora exesa
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
    image037.jpg

    Figure 62. Xarifia curtata, female, lateral view.

  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 3.19mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 3.55mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia decorata

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  • Hosts: Stylophora species, including S. mordax, S. pistillata, and one Stylophora specimen not indentified to the species level.
    image039.jpg

    Figure 63. Xarifia decorata, male, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.53mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.28mm
  • Color: Opaque, intestine reddish-brown, red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar, Mauritius Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
    image041.jpg

    Figure 64. Xarifia decorata, female, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968

Xarifia diminuta

  • Host: Psammocora contigua and Pavona species
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.18mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.35mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar, Mauritius Islands, New Caledonia
    image043.jpg

    Figure 65. Xarifia diminuta, female, lateral view.

  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia disbar

  • Host: Echinophyllia gemmacea, Echinophyllia lamellose, Echinophyllia sp. andPlatygyra species.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.46mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.46mm
    image045.jpg

    Figure 66. Xarifia dispar, female, lateral view.

  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia dissona

  • Host: Stylophora pistillata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image047.jpg

    Figure 67. Xarifia dissona, female, dorsal view.

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.45mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): Unknown
  • Color: Female: Gray, dark brown intestine, red eye
  • Locality: Big Broadhurst Reef, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
    image049.jpg

    Figure 68. Xarifia echinoporae, female, lateral view.

Xarifia echinoporae

  • Host: Echinopora horrida and E. lamellose
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.39mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 2.56mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: New Caledonia, Moluccas Islands
    image051.jpg

    Figure 69. Xarifia eminula, female, dorsal view.

  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia eminula

  • Host: Seriatopora hystrix
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
    image053.jpg

    Figure 70. Xarifia eminula, female, dorsal view.

  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.10mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.17mm
  • Color: Gray, red eye.
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
    image055.jpg

    Figure 71. Xarifia exserens (lateral view) from the “Galaxy” stony coral (Galaxea fascicularis). After Humes, 1985

Xarifia exserens

  • Host: Galaxea fascicularis
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.50mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 2.46mm
    image057.jpg

    Figure 72. Xarifia exigua, female, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

  • Color: Gray, intestine reddish gray, red eye.
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia exigua

  • Host: Pachyseris speciosa
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
    image059.jpg

    Figure 73. Xarifia exigua, male, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.80mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.85mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia extensa

  • Host: Montipora sp.
    image061.jpg

    Figure 74. Xarifia extens, lateral view.

  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.72mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.99mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia exuta

  • Host: Acropora palifera
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image063.jpg

    Figure 75. Xarifia exuta

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.49mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.46mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia fastigata

  • Host: Acropora rosaria and Acropora elseyi
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image065.jpg

    Figure 76. Xarifia fastigata

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.53mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.56mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia filata

  • Host: Gardinoseris planulata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image067.jpg

    Figure 77. Xarifia filata, female, dorsal view.

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.95mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.09mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye
  • Locality: Big Broadhurst Reef, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
    image069.jpg

    Figure 78. Xarifia fimbriata, female with eggs, lateral view

Xarifia fimbriata

  • Host: Pocillopora species, including P. damicornis, P. eydouxi, and unidentified Pocillopora species.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.45mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.42 mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands, New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
    image071.jpg

    Figure 79. Xarifia finitima, female, lateral view. Note the mandible.

Xarifia finitima

  • Host: Pavona cactus and Pavona varians
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.09 mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.0 mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye, eggs greenish
  • Locality: Mauritius Islands, New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
    image073.jpg

    Figure 80. Xarifia fissilis, female, lateral view.

Xarifia fissilis

  • Host: Pocillopora damicornis
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.93mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.71mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, intestine gray, red eye
    image075.jpg

    Figure 81. Xarifia fissilis, female, dorsal view.

  • Locality: Moluccas
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
  • Comment: X. fissilis has been found to contain zooxanthellae, mostly likely obtained from its host coral (Cheng and Dai, 2009b).

Xarifia formosa

  • Host: Psammocora digitata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image077.jpg

    Figure 82. Xarifia formosa, female, dorsal view. After Humes, 1985.

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.19mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.41mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, intestine reddish-brown, red eye, eggs gray
  • Locality: Eniwetok Atoll (Marshall Islands), New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia gerlachi

  • Host: Acropora species, including the A. corymbosa complex, A. cytheria, A. florida, A. hyacinthus, Acropora teres and an Acropora specimennot identified to the species level.
    image079.jpg

    Figure 83. Xarifia gerlachi, female, lateral view.

  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.40mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.96mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar and New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia gibberula

image081.jpg

Figure 84. Xarifia gibberula, female, dorsal view. After Humes, 1985.

  • Host: Pocillopora verrucosa
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.38mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.32mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye, eggs dull orange
  • Locality: Bowl Reef, GBR
    image083.jpg

    Figure 85. Xarifia gracilipes, female, lateral view.

  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia gracilipes

  • Host: Euphyllia glabrescens
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.16mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 2.16mm
    image085.jpg

    Figure 86. Large-polyp stony corals (such as this Euphyllia glabrescens) can be infested by parasites. Photo by the author.

  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia gradata

  • Host: Physogyra sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.33mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.20mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
    image087.jpg

    Figure 87. Xarifia gradata

Xarifia guttulifera

  • Host: Acropora palifera
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.46mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.59mm
    image089.jpg

    Figure 88. Xarifia guttulifera

  • Color:?
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia hadra

  • Host: Goniopora tenuidens and Goniopora pedunculata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image091.jpg

    Figure 89. Xarifia hadra

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.79mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.86mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia hamata

  • Host: Turbinaria sp. (T. elegans?)
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image093.jpg

    Figure 90. Xarifia hamata, female with eggs, lateral view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.42mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.56mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia heteromeles

  • Host: Montipora undata and Montipora composita
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image095.jpg

    Figure 91. Xarifia heteromeles, female with egg sac, lateral view.

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.98mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.00mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Lizard Island, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia imitans

  • Host: Psammocora digitata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image097.jpg

    Figure 92. Xarifia imitans, female, lateral view. After Humes, 1985

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.01mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.12mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, intestine reddish-brown, red eye, eggs gray
  • Locality: Marshall Islands and New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
    image099.jpg

    Figure 93. Xarifia imparilis, female, lateral view. After Humes.

Xarifia imparilis

  • Host: Pocillopora species, including P. damicornis, P. eydouxi, and P. verrucosa.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.57mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.38mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye, eggs sacs gray
  • Locality: Marshall Islands (Eniwetok), New Caledonia, Big Broadhurst Reef, GBR
    image101.jpg

    Figure 94. Xarifia infrequens

  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia infrequens

  • Host: Acropora ‘corymbosa’ complex, Acropora cytheria, and Acropora hyacinthus.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.54mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.27mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar; Lizard Island, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
    image103.jpg

    Figure 95. Xarifia jugalis, female, dorsal view.

Xarifia jugalis

  • Host: Pocillopora damicornis
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.36mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.32mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye, gray eggs
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands and New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
    image105.jpg

    Figure 96. Xarifia lacerans, female, dorsal view.

Xarifia lacerans

  • Host: Turbinaria danae
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.12mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.19mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, intestine slightly orange-red, red eye, egg sacs reddish-gray
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
    image107.jpg

    Figure 97. Xarifia lamellispinosa, male, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

Xarifia lamellispinosa

  • Host: Pachyseris speciosa
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.00mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.83mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar and Mauritius Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
    image109.jpg

    Figure 98. Xarifia lamellispinosa, female, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

Xarifia levis

  • Host: Seriatopora hystrix
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.13mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.98mm
    image111.jpg

    Figure 99. Xarifia levis, dorsal view.

  • Color: Light slightly tan, red eye, orange-red eggs
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands and New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia lissa

  • Host: Stylophora species, including S. mordax, S. pistillata and at least one specimen not identified to the species level.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image113.jpg

    Figure 100. Xarifia lissa, female, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.50mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.32mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar and Mauritius Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia loonies

  • Host: Pavona angulata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image115.jpg

    Figure 101. Xarifia longipes, female, lateral view.

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.56mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.50mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia maldivensis

  • Host: Pocillopora eydouxi species
    image117.jpg

    Figure 102. Xarifia maldivensis

  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.46mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.28mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Maldives Islands and Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia mediolobata

  • Host: Alveopora mortenseni
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image119.jpg

    Figure 103. Xarifia mediolobata

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.89mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 2.59mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia minax

  • Host: Physogyra (lichensteini?)
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image121.jpg

    Figure 104. Xarifia minax

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.46mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.66mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia mucronata

  • Host: Acropora palifera
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image123.jpg

    Figure 105. Xarifia mucronata

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.36mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.86mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands and New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
    image125.jpg

    Figure 106. Xarifia obesa, female, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

Xarifia obesa

  • Hosts: Pocillopora, Seriatopora, and Stylophora species, including P. damicornis,
  • P. danae, P. eydouxi, P. verrucosa, Seriatopora hystrix, Stylophora pistillata, and Stylophora pistillata var. palmata.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.48mm
    image127.jpg

    Figure 107. Xarifia obesa, male, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.30mm
  • Color: Tan/gray, red eye, egg sacs reddish-gray (based on photo in Cheng and Dai, 2009)
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands, Madagascar, Mauritius Islands, multiple GBR locations.
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia pectinea

  • Host: Acropora and Montipora species, including Acropora florida, Acropora humilis, Acropora hyacinthus, Acropora intermedia, Acropora patula, Acropora rambleri, and Montipora ramosa.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image129.jpg

    Figure 108. Xarifia pectinea, female, lateral view.

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.83mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.66mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas, New Caledonia, Lizard Island, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia plectrata

  • Host: Acrhelia horrescens
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image131.jpg

    Figure 109. Xarifia plectrata, female, dorsal view.

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.03mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.92mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye, eggs light brownish-gray
  • Locality: Big Broadhurst Reef, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia quinaria

  • Host: Pocillopora damicornis
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image133.jpg

    Figure 110. Xarifia quinaria, female, dorsal view.

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.35mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.12mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye, egg sacs gray with orange globules in eggs
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia radians

  • Host: Alveopora mortenseni
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image135.jpg

    Figure 111. Xarifia radians

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.39mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 2.49mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia rasilis

  • Host: Gardinoseris planulata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image137.jpg

    Figure 112. Xarifia rasilis, female, dorsal view.

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.91mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): unknown
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye
  • Locality: Big Broadhurst Reef, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia reducta

  • Host: Seriatopora caliendrum
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image139.jpg

    Figure 113. Xarifia reducta

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.12mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.97mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia resex

  • Host: Goniopora tenuidens and Goniopora sp.
    image141.jpg

    Figure 114. Xarifia resex, female, lateral view.

  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.39mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.66mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar and Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia rosariae

  • Host: Acropora rosaria
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image143.jpg

    Figure 115. Xarifia rosariae

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.76mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.53mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia sabiuraensis

  • Host: Acropora species, including A. abrotanoides, A. convexa, A. florida,
  • Acropora hyacinthus, A. intermedia, A. patula and A. rambleri.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image145.jpg

    Figure 116. Xarifia sabiuraensis

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.66mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.44mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Japan, Marshall Islands, Moluccas Islands, New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia scutipes

  • Host: Goniopora tenuidens and Goniopora pedunculata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image147.jpg

    Figure 117. Xarifia scutipes

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.09mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 2.09mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia sectilis

  • Host: Pocillopora and Stylophora species, including P. damicornis, P. eydouxi, and Stylophora pistillata.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image149.jpg

    Figure 118. Xarifia sectilis, male, dorsal view.

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.93mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.69mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye, dark greenish-gray eggs
  • Locality: Marshall Islands, New Caledonia, Big Broadhurst Reef, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia serrata

  • Host: Pocillopora and Stylophora species, including P. damicornis, P. verrucosa, and Stylophora subseriata.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image151.jpg

    Figure 119. Xarifia serrata

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.40mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.55mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar and Mauritius Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia simplex

  • Host: Scapophyllia cylindrica
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image153.jpg

    Figure 120. Xarifia simplex, female, dorsal view.

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.93mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 2.23mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye, egg sacs gray
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia syntoma

  • Host: Montipora undata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image155.jpg

    Figure 121. Xarifia syntoma

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.81mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.00mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia temnura

  • Host: Montipora species, including M. ramosa, M. sinensis, and M. undata.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    image157.jpg

    Figure 122. Xarifia temnura, female, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.65mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.50mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar, Moluccas Islands, New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia tenta

  • Host: Pocillopora species, including P. verrucosa and P. ligulata
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.08mm
    image159.jpg

    Figure 123. Xarifia tenta, female, dorsal view.

  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.94mm
  • Color: Opaque gray to tan, red eye, egg sacs gray
  • Locality: Marshall Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia tenuis

  • Host: Acropora cytheria
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.48mm
    image161.jpg

    Figure 124. Xarifia tenuis, female, lateral view.

  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.30mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia torigera

  • Host: Favites flexuosa
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.43mm
    image163.jpg

    Figure 125. Xarifia torigera, female, dorsal view.

  • Maximum Reported Size (male): Unknown
  • Color: Pale brown, orange-brown intestine, red eye, egg sacs gray
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia trituberata

  • Host: Acropora species, including A. abrotanoides, A. ‘corymbosa’ group, A. florida, A. humilis, A. hyacinthus, A. intermedia, A. patula, and A. rambleri.
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.53mm
    image165.jpg

    Figure 126. Xarifia trituberata

  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.66mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands and New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia tumorisa

  • Host: Acropora species, including A. ‘corymbosa’ group, A. elseyi, A. florida,
  • A. hyacinthus and A. intermedia.
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.39mm
    image167.jpg

    Figure 127. Xarifia tumorisa

  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.39mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Japan, Moluccas Islands, New Caledonia, Lizard Island, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia bumboat

  • Host: Seriatopora hystrix
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.22mm
    image169.jpg

    Figure 128. Xarifia umbonata, female, dorsal view.

  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.06mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia uncinata

  • Host: Turbinaria danae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.65mm
    image171.jpg

    Figure 129. Xarifia unicata, female, dorsal view.

  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.84mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, intestine slightly orange-red, red eye, egg sacs reddish-gray
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia varilabrata

  • Host: Seriatopora hystrix
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.88mm
    image173.jpg

    Figure 130. Xarifia varilabrata, female, dorsal view.

  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.90mm
  • Color: Pale brown, intestine dark brown, red eye, eggs orange-red
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands, New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Xarifia villosa

  • Host: Cyphastrea chalcidicum
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.12mm
    image175.jpg

    Figure 131. Xarifia villosa, female, lateral view.

  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.26mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Zazaranus fungicolus

  • Host: Fungia sp.
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

This concludes our discussion of Xarifiid copepods. Next time, we’ll look at those bugs all too familiar to many hobbyists – ‘red’ and ‘black’ bugs – and will examine methods of treatment.

Questions? Comments? Please leave correspondence in the ‘Comment’ section below.

Categories:
  Advanced Aquarist, Advanced Aquarist
Dana Riddle
About

 Dana Riddle

  (120 articles)

I have been an aquarist since 1964 and a reef hobbyist since the mid-1980’s. I am the owner of a small laboratory (Riddle Aquatic Laboratories) that specializes in investigation of interactions between light and water motion & photosynthetic organisms (especially corals). The results of this research, resulting in almost 250 articles, have been published in Advanced Aquarist Online, Aquarium Frontiers, Koralle, Freshwater and Marine Aquarium, The Breeders’ Registry, Aquarium Fish, Marine Fish Monthly and others. My first article was published in a 1984 SeaScope and relayed my experiences with a refugium – an idea that would catch fire about a decade later. I have had the honor of making over 60 presentations to various groups, including national conferences such as the Marine Aquarium Conference of North America (MACNA) International Marine Aquarium Conference (IMAC), PetsFestival (Italy), regional conferences, and local clubs. I received the Marine Aquarium Society of North America (MASNA) Aquarist of the Year Award in 2011 at the MACNA conference in Des Moines.

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