Media Review: February 2002

As some of you may have noticed, Doug
Robbins and I will be alternating scribing this column. My role
will be to draw your attention to articles and other publications
available in the scientific literature. Not everyone has the time
to spend checking this literature on a daily basis so my goal is
to alert you to items that may be of interest to marine
aquarists. Not all of you have access to university libraries so
the procurement of some of this material might be difficult, but
many of you can get access if you register as a public lender at
your local university of college. There is also a lot of
scientific literature that can be accessed through the Internet,
so whenever possible, I will include links that will allow you to
obtain or perhaps even view the material mentioned. In some cases
I will review the publication while in others I will provide only
the citation so that you can find it on your own.

Bulletin of Marine
Science 50th Anniversary Issue

National Coral Reef Institute: Proceedings of the
International Conference on Scientific Aspects of Coral Reef
Assessment, Monitoring and Restoration. Bulletin of Marine
Science 69(2):293-1060
.

In April of 1999, the National Coral Reef Institute held a
three-day conference in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA involving
scientists and resource managers from around the world to address
the scientific aspects of coral reef assessment, monitoring and
restoration. This special issue of the Bulletin of Marine Science
published in September 2001 represents a collection of 49 papers
from this conference covering assessment of coral reefs (health,
coral coverage, etc.), biodiversity and community dynamics,
impacts and stressors, monitoring of coral reefs, and restoration
efforts and techniques. The papers all incorporate at least one
or more of three themes: What do researchers/managers perceive to
be important needs and trends in these areas? What are the
emerging issues and priorities for coral reef research,
conservation and management?

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A. cervicornis

A stunning photo prominently featuring Acropora cervicornis.

And what are the inadequacies in current programs/activities
and action(s), modifications, or new approaches are needed to
rectify these shortcomings?

Coral reefs are often termed the “rainforests of the sea”,
where the fish and corals represent the birds and trees. However,
rainforest ecologists have found that it is the less conspicuous
organisms of the rainforest, the insects, which have proven the
most informative about the intricate ecological workings of these
habitats. As of this time coral reef ecologists have yet to
identify the aquatic equivalent of “insects”. There is now a
growing consensus amongst coral reef ecologists that an analogous
group of organisms may need to be identified on coral reefs (be
they sponges, algae, crustaceans or tunicates) before they can
begin to better understand the intricacies of coral reef
ecology.

Although all the sessions are of interest to anyone who loves
coral reefs and is concerned about their survival, the last
section on restoration holds the most practical information for
aquarists. The following papers are, I believe, of particular
interest:

  • Becker, L.C. and E. Mueller. The culture, transplantation and
    storage of Montastrea faveolata, Acropora
    cervicornis
    and Acropora palmata: What we have learned
    so far.
  • Borneman, E. and J. Lowrie. Advances in captive husbandry and
    propagation: An easily utilized reef replenishment means from the
    private sector?
  • Bowden-Kirby, A. Low-tech coral reef restoration
    methods modeled after natural fragmentation processes.
  • Gleason,
    D.F., Brazeau, D.A. and D. Munfus. Methods to enhance sexual
    recruitment for restoration of damaged reefs.
  • Spieler, R.E.,
    Gilliam, D.S. and R.L. Sherman. Artificial substrate and coral
    reef restoration: What we need to know to know what we need.
  • Ortiz-Prosper, A.L., Bowden-Kirby, A., Ruiz, H., Tirado, O.,
    Caban, A., Sanchez, G. and J.C. Crespo. Planting small massive
    corals on small artificial concrete reefs or dead coral
    heads.

M. faveolata

A large colony of Montastrea faveolata photographed in the wild.

This special issue can be found in any university library that
carries this journal, the call number is GC1.B8. You can also
contact them via their website
(http://
www.rsmas.miami.edu/bms
) and obtain it as a back
issue. Back issues are available for volumes 18 to present from
the Bulletin of Marine Science, P.O. Box 971, Key Biscayne,
Florida 33149-0971 USA. Most back issues are sold for $35.00 each
and sent via surface mail. There is an additional charge for Air
Mail depending on final destination. Prepayment in U.S. dollars
is required. There are also table of contents available on their
website for issues from November 1998 to March 2000.

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Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology

Invers, O., Zimmerman, R.C., Alberte,
R.S., Perez, M. and J. Romero. 2001. Inorganic carbon sources for
seagrass photosynthesis: an experimental evaluation of
bicarbonate use in species inhabiting temperate waters.
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
265(2):203-217
.

This is a rather interesting paper
that details experiments in growing temperate species of seagrass
from the Mediterranean (Posidonia oceanica and
Cymodocea nodosa) and from the Monterey region of
California (Zostera marina and Phyllospadix
torreyi
) under different pH, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate
levels. It was found that at lower pH’s (5-6) the seagrass could
photosynthesize at a greater rate due to larger amounts of
CO2 being present. An increase in pH (8.2-8.6) causes
a decrease in photosynthesis due to less CO2 being present; at
this point bicarbonate (HCO3) becomes the
main source of inorganic carbon. As a result, a higher pH results
in lower rates of photosynthesis, as bicarbonate becomes the
limiting factor. Interestingly, it was found that at a similar pH
the Mediterranean species were better able to use bicarbonate
than the Monterey species, while the Monterey species were better
at using carbon dioxide. The key point to take home here is the
importance of maintaining bicarbonate alkalinity, especially if
you are interested in keeping seagrass and macroalgae. Buffers
that contain high levels of borate at the expense of bicarbonates
and carbonates should be avoided for obvious reasons.

Biological Bulletin

Mizrahi, O.L., Chadwick-Furman, N.E. and Y. Achituv. 2001.
Factors controlling the expansion behavior of Favia favus
(Cnidaria: Scleractinia): Effects of light, flow and planktonic
prey. Biological Bulletin 200(April):118-126.

It is a common belief that corals expand at night in order to
feed on planktonic prey. However, what is forgotten is that water
flow and light levels also play an important role. This paper
describes a study conducted in the Red Sea on Favia favus,
a massive coral who’s polyps open soon after sunset and retract
just after dawn. Their results indicate that three factors: flow
rate (low= 5 cm/s, medium = 10 cm/s, high = 15 cm/s), light level
(low = 40 umol/m/s2, medium = 80 umol/m/s2,
high = 120 umol/m/s2) and prey presence
(Artemia nauplii), determine the degree of polyp extension
at night, but flow rate and light are the main triggers. Tentacle
expansion was greatest when water flow was high, light levels
were low and prey was present. When no prey was present extension
was only 75%. In still water the corals would not extend their
tentacles even if light levels and prey density were varied. When
light levels are too high (above the light compensation point of
107 +/-24 umol/m/s2) the coral would not expand no
matter what the flow was or if prey was present. If no prey was
present, and the flow was medium or high, and light was below the
light compensation point, then the corals still expanded,
indicating that the coral’s response to the presence of prey was
secondary to water flow and light level. The authors also
concluded that since the zooxanthellae density in this species is
low, extending the tentacles during the day was probably
metabolically more expensive than keeping them closed. They felt
that their results may not be applicable to corals with high
densities of zooxanthellae and that these corals would be more
likely to benefit from expanding during the daytime.

For the aquarist the lesson here is
that flow rates need also be taken into consideration when it
comes to determining feeding in corals at night. Too low a flow
may result in some corals not expanding and hence, not being able
to feed. This lack of polyp tentacle extension could be
mistakenly interpreted as sign that the coral does not need to or
want to feed.

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Interesting
Citations from the Periodical Literature

The following are citations for
articles that might also be of interest to aquarists, which were
published in the latter months of 2001.

Corals

  • Duh, C.Y., Chen, K.J., ElGamal,
    A.A.H. and C.F. Dai. 2001. Sesquiterpenes from the formosan
    stolonifer Tubipora musica. Journal of Natural Products
    64(4):1430-1433
    .Fitt, W.K. and C.B. Cook. 2001. The effects
    of feeding or addition of dissolved inorganic nutrients in
    maintaining the symbiosis between dinoflagellates and a tropical
    marine cnidarian. Marine Biology 139:507-517.
  • Watanabe, M., Sekine, M., Takahashi,
    H and K. Iguchi. 2001. New halogenated marine prostanoids with
    cytotoxic activity from the Okinawan soft coral Clavularia
    viridis
    . Journal of Natural Products
    64(4):1421-1425
    .

Filtration

  • Amirsardari, Y., Yu, O. and P.
    Williams. 2001. Effect of ozone and UV irradiation with direct
    filtration on disinfection and disinfection by-product precursors
    in drinking water. Environmental Technology
    22(9):1015-1024
    .

Fish

  • Chan, T.C., Ormand, R.F.G. and Mok,
    H-K. 2001. Feeding and territorial behaviour in juveniles of
    three co-existing triggerfishes. Journal of Fish Biology
    59(5):524-532
    .Crossman, D.J., Choat, J.H., Clements, K.D.,
    Hardy, T. and J. McConochie. 2001. Detritus as food for grazing
    fishes on coral reefs. Limnology and Oceanography
    46(7):1596-1605
    .Randall, J.E. 2001. Four new cardinalfishs
    (Perciformes: Apogonidae) from the Marquesas Islands. Pacific
    Science 55(1):47-64
    .Randall, J.E. 2001. Antennatus
    linearis
    , a new Indo-Pacific species of frogfish
    (Lophiiformes: Antennariiidae). Pacific Science
    55(2):137-144
    .
  • Tanaka, Y., Hioki, S. and K. Suzuki.
    2001. Spawning behavior, eggs, and larvae of the butterflyfish, Chaetodon modestus in
    an aquarium. Journal of the
    School of Marine Science and Technology Tokai University No.
    51:89-100
    . (In Japanese with English abstract and figure
    captions).

Invertebrates

And finally to compliment Doug
Robbins’ column last month here are a few citations for anyone
interesting in the reproductive biology of Lysmata spp.
shrimp:

  • Bauer, R.T. 2000. Simultaneous
    hermaphroditism in caridean shrimps: a unique and puzzling sexual
    system in the decapoda. Journal of Crustacean Biology
    20:116-128
    .Bauer, R.T. and G.J. Holt. 1998. Simultaneous
    hermaphroditism in the marine shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni
    (Caridea: Hippolytidae): an undescribed sexual system in the
    decapod Crustacea. Marine Biology 132:223-235.Fielder,
    G.C. 1998. Functional, simultaneous hermaphroditism in
    female-phase Lysmata amboinensis (Decapoda: Caridea:
    Hippolytidae). Pacific Science 52:161-169.Lin, J. and D.
    Zhang. 2001. Reproduction in a simultaneous hermaphroditic shrimp
    Lysmata wurdemanni: any two will do? Marine Biology
    139:919-922
    .
  • Zhang, D., Lin, J. and R.L. Creswell.
    1998. Effects of food and temperature on survival and development
    in the peppermint shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni. Journal of
    the World Aquacultural Society 29:471-476
    .

On the Web

A very interesting website is the
Hawaii Sea Grant program. On this site you can find pages that
allow you to search their list of publications (many of which are
free)
(
http://imina.soest.hawaii.edu/SEAGRANT/publications.html
)
as well as a bibliographic listing of articles published in
journals, conference/symposium proceedings, and other
publications, as are titles of reports produced in cooperation
with other organizations
(
http://imina.soest.hawaii.edu/SEAGRANT/bibliography.html
).
There is also an interesting list of articles, each of which you
can read online, dealing with aquaculture of marine and
freshwater fish including rearing certain fish and live feeds
(
http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/SEAGRANT/aquacultips.html
).

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 J. Charles Delbeek

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