Aquarium Corals: Stony Coral Parasites: Red and Black Bugs: Identification Guide, Preventive Measures, and a Review of Treatment Protocols

This month, we’ll take a look at something most hobbyists would prefer to never see – coral parasites of genera Alteuthellopsis, Parategastes, and Tegastes (the latter two commonly called ‘red’ or ‘black bugs’).

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  • Order: Harpacticoida
    • Family: Peltidiidae
      • Genus: Alteuthellopsis
    • Family: Tegastidae
    • Genus: Parategastes, Tegastes

As a general rule, ‘bugs’ of Order Harpacticoida are smaller in size than Xarifiid copepods, with a length of about 0.5mm being the maximum size. They are generally considered to be endoparasites and are thought to reside mainly in coral polyps’ gastrovascualr cavity.

Order: Harpacticoida; Family: Peltidiidae; Genus: Alteuthellopsis

Alteuthellopsis corallina

  • Hosts: Acropora exigua, Astreopora sp., Goniastrea retiformis, Merulina ampliata, Montipora verilli, Platygyra daedala, Platygyra sp., andPocillopora damicornis.
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.63mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.57mm
  • Color: Slightly opaque gray, red eye, egg sacs dark brownish gray.
  • Locality: Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands, Lizard Island, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1981
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Figure 132. Alteuthellopsis corallina, lateral view.

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Figure 133. Alteuthellopsis corallina, dorsal view.

Order: Harpacticoida; Family: Tegastidae; Genus: Parategastes, Tegastes: Common Name: Red bugs, black bugs

‘Red bugs’ are the bane of Acropora keepers and it is popular belief among hobbyists that they are the only parasites of stony corals. The ‘evil’ Tegastes acroporanus has been officially described from but one Acropora species.

Copepods of the family Tegastidae (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) are characterized by a laterally compressed amphipod-like body, a modified male genital area, and nauplii possess a claw-like mandible (Lang 1948, Ivanenko et al. 2008). About 60 species belonging to 6 genera have been described, although those listed as parasitic to corals are small relative to the number of Xarifiid species known to infest corals. As a rule of thumb, Tegastidae copepods are much smaller than xarifiid copepods.

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Figure 134. Tegastes cnidicus. Although not a known coral parasite (this species prefers hydrozoans), its shape is representative of its kind. Lateral view.

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Figure 135. Tegastes cnidicus. Dorsal view.

Except for the deep-sea species Smacigastes micheli (Ivanenko & Defaye 2004), all tegastid species have been found in shallow water habitats in association with algae, bryozoans and/or cnidarians. Not all are animal parasites. For instance, Tegastes nanus is found in association with the red alga Ceranium and brown algae genera Fucus and Laminaria. Tegastes falcatus feeds upon suctorian cilicates found on the bryozoan Flustra foliacea, while T. longimanus is found along sheltered rocky shores and salt lakes. T. acroporanus is a known parasite of at least one coral, the Pacific Acropora species A. florida.

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Figure 136. ‘Red Bugs’ on an Acropora specimen appear red when they are reflecting light. Photo by the author.

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Figure 137. Note the red coloration concentrated in the caudal ramus, and the reflective eye spot. Are these Tegastes paulipes? Photo courtesy of Greg Ho and www.ximinasphotography.com

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Figure 138. Same coral as that in Figure 137. Notice the bugs within the Acropora‘s corallites. Are these parasites attempting to enter the coral’s gastrovascualr cavities? Or are they being eaten? Photo courtesy of Greg Ho and www.ximinasphotography.com

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Figure 139. A ‘red bug’ showing a reddish-brown coloration in transmitted light. Compare this to photos below. Photo by the author.

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Figure 140. The same Tegastes specimen as shown in Figure 139 contains a fluorescent protein and appears green when appropriate excitation light is applied. Has this bug incorporated fluorescent proteins obtained from its coral host? Photomicrograph by the author.

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Figure 141. Not all bugs are red, as this ‘black’ Tegastid copepod shows. This unidentified specimen was found on a Montipora coral. Microphotograph by the author.

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Figure 142. Although a deep-water species, this Smacigastes micheli demonstrates the beauty (or creepiness, depending upon your point of view) of parasitic copepods. From Ivanenko & Defaye 2004.

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Tegastes acroporanus

  • Host: Acropora florida
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): ?
  • Color: Red, according to aquarists’ reports
  • Locality: Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1981
  • Tegastes gemmeus
  • Host: Cyphastrea Celina and Pocillopora capitata (listed as P. verrucosa)
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.43mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.41mm
  • Color: Gray with red eye
  • Locality: Oahu, Hawaii
  • Reference: Humes, 1984
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Figure 143. Tegastes gemmeus, a copepod known to infest Hawai’ian corals. This is a typical dorsal view of Tegastes and Parategastes.

Tegastes georgei

  • Host: Stylophora sp. and Pocillopora sp.
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: Gulf of Eliat, Red Sea
  • Reference: Humes, 1984

Tegastes paulipes

  • Host: Pocillopora verrucosa
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.42mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.42mm
  • Color: Light pale tan to gray with darker amber areas, red eye, egg sacs gray.
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1984
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Figure 144. Tegastes paulipes, female, lateral view.

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Figure 145. A ‘red bug’ taken from a captive Acropora specimen. Is it Tegastes paulipes? This is quite interesting as T. paulipes is not officially recognized as a parasite of Acropora species. Photo courtesy of Greg Hiller. More details can be found here: http://www.advancedaquarist.com/issues/june2003/feature.htm

Parategastes conexus

  • Host: Stereonephthya ulicoides
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.41mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.43mm
  • Color: Opaque pale grayish tan, eye red, genital area bright red, egg sacs gray.
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1984
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Figure 146. Parategastes conexus, a parasite known only from the soft coral Stereonephthya.

Order: Siphonostomatoida; Family: Asterocheridae; Genus: Acontiophorus, Stockmyzon

There isn’t much information about these copepods relative to some other genera. These ‘bugs’ seem to be confined to the Atlantic and Mediterranean, and have not been reported from the Pacific.

Acontiophorus scutatus

  • Host: Asterocheres astroidicola
  • Reference: Humes and Ho, 1968a

Stockmyzon mucronipes

  • Host: Astroides calycularis
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.42mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.08mm
  • Color: Translucent, red eye, egg sacs gray
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Ho, 1968a

Parasitic Copepods in the Reef Aquarium

An aquarium differs radically from a natural environment, and a quite different from a coral reef. Temperature, nutrients, and a number of other factors may contribute to unnatural populations or outbreaks of copepod populations. While these may contribute to abnormal infestations, hobbyists do have a number of methods available to them, including quarantine, chemical control or eradication, biological controls including deliberate manipulation of physical and chemical parameters, as well as selective control by natural predators.

Prevention

The old adage ‘An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure’ applies to both quarantine and husbandry procedures. However, the effectiveness of currently accepted pre-treatment and quarantine procedures are yet to be validated for many parasitic copepod genera.

Parameters Possibly Affecting Parasite Populations

Part of a successful control strategy for parasites might include manipulation of physical parameters. We’ll briefly discuss two – temperature and water motion. These are easily (but not necessarily inexpensively) controlled.

Temperature

Temperature is an easily measured parameter of any body of water and its importance in the regulation of biological and biochemical reactions is well recognized. Yet, I saw very little mention of temperature while reviewing a number of hobby-related works on parasites. However, Sparks (1985) mentions temperatures in the lower range of tolerance as important in keeping parasites, disease, etc. in check. Further, Jacoby and Greenwood (1989) reported statistically significant seasonal changes in demersal zooplankton populations in Australia (including Parategastes copepods known to preferentially inhabit certain algal beds – other Parategastes species are parasites of certain coral taxa).

Humes and Lee, 1985 found parasitic copepod Anthessius populations rose in populations of the clam Pecna in water off Hong Kong during the later part of the year. When compared to average environmental data (water and air temps, rainfall) for the area, it appears there is a general trend of more ‘bugs’ during times of warmer water. However, this time is also one of lessened rainfall that could reduce lessened nutrient loadings. This observation is by all means not conclusive, but it is an interesting one. See Figures 147 and 148.

Any seasoned hobbyist has seen blooms of various (usually undesirable) organisms within aquaria and all are due to a domino-effect of change, some undoubtedly triggered by warm water. Although we have lots of subjective evidence, work remains to be done on the effects of temperature and coral parasite populations. Maintaining the temperature as low as 22°C (~72°F) in an aquarium for tropical fishes and invertebrates should present no problems.

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Figure 147. Clams (Pecna viridis) infested with Anthessius copepods. Compare this to the locale’s weather data, below. From Humes and Lee, 1985.

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Figure 148. Hong Kong’s climate data by month. Temperatures (air and water are mean values). Rainfall is by number of days in a given month when rainfall exceeds 0.1mm, 25mm and 50mm. Source: Hong Kong Observatory (www.weather.gov.hk/cis/normal/1961­_1990/enormal07.htm)

Water Motion

Experienced snorkelers or divers know that natural coral reefs are subjected to much higher water motion than seen in most aquaria. The high water velocity could serve to remove parasites from corals’ tissues where they are hence eaten by fishes. It is really a matter of speculation that low water movement might encourage parasitic infestations, however it is generally accepted that zooxanthellae photosynthesis is proportional (up to a point) to water velocity when sufficient light energy is available. If water motion is low, then the amount of nutrient obtained by the coral from the symbiotic Symbiodinium might also be low. In this case, the coral’s energy reserves could also be limited, thus an infestation by parasitic copepods might have more of an effect.

Isolation from the Host

During preparation of this article hundreds of Tegastes (or Parategastes) parasites were isolated from the host coral, and were examined microscopically for a number of days. Oddly, not one female with egg sacs was observed. These bugs remained isolated from the host for about 4 days before dying. However, plenty of protozoa were observed in the sample, suggesting that environmental conditions (dissolved oxygen, pH, etc.) were not the cause of copepod deaths.

Why were there no females reproducing? Are these particular parasitic copepods unusually long lived making rapid reproduction unnecessary?

Treatments for Parasitic Copepods

The very first question that should be asked is ‘Should I treat?’ The very best scenario is no parasites at all, but a few might do no significant harm. In addition, some parasitic copepods seem to have a high fidelity to specific coral species and the risk of infection of other coral species might be non-existent or minimal. However, infestations resulting in loss of corals’ color, polyp expansion, or general malaise should be taken seriously and followed with a regimented treatment protocol.

Copepods succumb to a variety of chemicals, and a review of older material (Kabata, 1970; Dulin, 1976) suggests use of insecticides such as DDT (!), lindane (!) and Dylox. Fortunately we don’t have to resort to such drastic (and dangerous) methods for control of coral parasites.

Successful treatments for copepods infestations are dependent upon many factors. The resistance of the animal against the treatment procedure is something we know very little, although there is little to suggest that one genus of copepod is more resistant than others to a certain ‘medication.’ If we consider each ‘bug’ is equally susceptible, then two other factors are involved: Dosage and Length of Treatment. These are being refined, as the information below states.

Quarantine Treatments for Red and Black Bugs

There are several products for ‘bug control’ available to hobbyists. With the exception of the ReVive product (obtained as a manufacturer’s sample), these solutions were obtained through normal retail channels. All were tested using the following protocols.

Testing Protocol

Since I do not have access to all the coral parasites, I decided to conduct some bioassays using similar creatures. Note that we should not be concerned with only the target organism, but should examine the effects of the medication on a variety of organisms. Also included are observations made by a select group of hobbyists. These comments should not be considered to be comprehensive, but as results obtained with a specific ‘bug’ species under the conditions of testing.

Protocol: Snails, planarians, and copepods were collected from a freshwater pond and divided into a study group and a control group. These groups were placed into stainless steel pans containing one liter of pond water. Medication was added per the manufacturer’s recommendations. Observations were made continuously during the recommended treatment time, after which at least one water change was made. A final observation was made after 24 hours. These trials were conducted twice, about 1 week apart.

ReVive Coral Cleaner

  • Manufacturer: Two Little Fishies
  • Contains: Oleum abietis, 5,000 mg/l; Citrus limon, 5,000 mg/l (or 0.5% each)
  • pH: 5.27 @ 24.2°C. – Does not adversely affect water pH when following manufacturer’s dosing recommendations.
  • 1 capful = 8 milliliters
  • Marked Expiration Date: No
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Figure 149. ReVive, a ‘coral cleaner’ from Two Little Fishies.

This product is effective against crustaceans, including copepods. It is not intended for treatment of whole aquaria.

The label lists two main active ingredients: Oleum abietis (pine or fir oil) and Citrus Limon (lemon peel extract). Pine oil is often used by humans as a decongestant, and it has antiseptic properties. Cold-pressed extracts of lemon peels has various commercial and industrial uses.

The bottle I obtained is not marked with an expiration date. When stored properly (in the dark and refrigerated) it probably has a shelf life of a year or two. When citrus limon degrades, it develops a turpentine odor and this might used as an indicator of product condition.

I found this product to be an effective coral cleaner. A Montipora specimen was soaked in a Revive solution for 16 minutes, although copepods and other crustaceans had abandoned the coral a few minutes after the treatment began. The coral exhibited some mucus discharge (about that seem when most corals are handled) and was soaked in ReVive-free aquarium water before being returned to the aquarium. The Revive solution and debris was poured through a 190 micron mesh, and the collected material was examined with the aid of a microscope. Various amphipods and copepods, plus a number of unidentified animals were observed. See Figure 150. The kill rate of copepods was 100%.

The aforementioned Montipora specimen was chosen for treatment because it had inexplicably lost most of its vibrant orange coloration, and batteries of testing had failed to reveal any environmental (mostly chemical) clues. After about 3 weeks, I noticed that portions of the specimen were regaining its orange fluorescence. Although I cannot guarantee that the cleansing dip was responsible for the return of coloration, I am at a loss to provide an alternate explanation.

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Figure 150. A copepod ‘chased’ from a Montipora specimen by the ReVive product. Note the brown dots within the crustacean – are these zooxanthellae, or simply natural coloration? Photomicrograph by the author.

Results of ReVive Treatment (Using freshwater animals, protocol described above):

  • Unidentified Crustaceans: 94% kill rate after 15 minute dip
  • Snails: Initially stunned by the treatment, but apparently fully recovered when observed at 24 hours.

MelaFix Marine

  • Manufacturer: Aquarium Pharmaceuticals
  • Contains: Oil of the Meleluca Tree, 12,500 mg/l (or 1.25%)
  • pH: 4.16 @ 22.1°C. Does not adversely affect water pH when following manufacturer’s dosing recommendations.
  • 1 capful = 11.3 milliliters
  • Marked Expiration Date: Yes. Purchased in October 2009. Expiration date is July 2012.
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Figure 151. Melafix, a ‘coral remedy’ from API.

Aquarist Steve Ruddy kindly relayed his experiences with ‘black bugs’ (see Figures 5, 6, and 7) and MelaFix. He found that black bugs abandoned the host coral (a Montipora species – See Figure 4) about 20 minutes after the treatment began. Note: Ruddy’s treatment time of 20 minutes exceeds the manufacturer’s maximum recommended time of 5 minutes. These copepods settled to the bottom of the container and swam in circles, and all motion stopped 30 minutes after treatment started. However, the parasites were not killed during the treatment process, and were still alive some 24 hours after the treatment began.

We should note that Meleluca oil is considered a carcinogen by the State of California, and the bottles of Melafix Marine are so marked.

Results of Melafix Treatment (Freshwater animals used, protocol described above):

  • Unidentified Crustaceans: 97.5% kill rate after 15 minute dip*
  • Snails: Initially stunned by the treatment, but apparently fully recovered when observed at 24 hours.

*An interesting observation. When comparing the kill rates of different copepods, it is apparent that this product is very effective against some bugs, and not so against others. This point may be moot, as Ruddy found it worked very well when used to drive (but not kill) bugs from a Montipora coral during a quarantine ‘dip’.

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Figure 152. When treated with Melafix, these unidentified copepods (black bugs) abandoned a distressed Montipora specimen. Photo courtesy of Steve Ruddy.

Pro-Coral Cure

  • Manufacturer: Tropic Marin
  • Contains: Iodine, about 5,600 mg/l (or 0.56%)
  • pH: 6.49 @ 22.0°C – Does not adversely affect water pH when following manufacturer’s dosing recommendations.
  • Marked Expiration Date: No

This product’s container uses a small push-pump to dispense the iodine solution. I found it to deliver 0.7 milliliters (it is advertised to dispense 1 ml). I bring this up as I found the pump awkward and messy to use and chose to measure the solution using a suction bulb and pipette. For those dispensing the product manually, a dose smaller than recommended seems to work well (see results below).

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Figure 153. Pro-Coral Cure, an iodine-based product from Tropic Marin.

Results of Pro-Coral Cure Treatment (Freshwater animals used, protocol described above):

  • Unidentified Crustaceans: 94% kill rate after 15 minute dip
  • Snails: Initially stunned by the treatment, but apparently fully recovered when observed at 24 hours.
  • This product was also tested as an agent of flatworm control. We’ll discuss this in a future article.

Product Shelf Life of ‘Coral Dips’

Dosage is based upon the reactive agent content. Most products have a limited shelf life and an expiration date is (or should be) marked on the container. For example, meleluca degrades upon exposure to light, heat, humidity and exposure to air, and the product containing it (MelaFix, Aquarium Pharmaceuticals) has an expiration date on the bottle. This date is there for a reason – don’t ignore it. Store these and other products in dark, cool dry conditions and in a container containing little air (Carson et al., 2006) to avoid considerable changes in the chemical makeup. The only indictor of spoilage of which I am aware is the potential development of a turpentine odor.

Two Little Fishies product (ReVive) has no expiration date.

The Tropic Marin Pro-Coral Cure is not marked with an expiration date. Iodine degradation is often linked to light intensity. Store this product in the dark.

Ethyl and Methyl Alcohols

Ethyl and methyl alcohols are toxic to invertebrates, depending upon the dose of course. In various papers, the copepod expert Arthur Humes mentions using 95% ethyl alcohol to make a 5% solution of alcohol and seawater. He soaked various corals in this solution over timeframes of several hours to overnight, and found endoparasitic copepods would abandon their host. I tried this, and found it true, but it also killed the coral host.

In-Tank Treatments for Red and Black Bugs

In-tank treatments fall into two general categories – biological and chemical. Personally I would prefer a natural means of controlling coral parasites, however, there are many issues surrounding this protocol. I suppose it is an overall lack of success I’ve had over the years when choosing fishes, crabs, nudibranchs and other animals for elimination of some sort of pest.

Biological controls are subject to the independent whims of parasite predators. Long-time hobbyists recognize that individuals of a given fish species have their own personalities and behaviors. For instance, some Copperband Butterflyfishes will destroy Aiptasia colonies, while another Copperband might show little or no interest in a diet of Aiptasia anemones. Other fishes may have specific dietary requirements, and elimination of parasites through predation could result in loss through starvation of the predatory fish. As we have seen, many coral parasites reside within coral tissues and successful bio-removal would involve substantial loss of coral tissues – a case where the cure for parasites is successful due to the loss of the host. However, my experiences will not necessarily be yours. I wish you the best of luck in our endeavors.

Chemical Treatments

Milbemycin Oxime (Interceptor™)

  • Manufacturer: Novartis AG
  • Treatment protocol developed by Dustin Dorton.
  • Comments: Store milbemycin oxime at room temperature.

Interceptor is a medication marketed for treatment of canine scabies, eye worms, roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, and heartworms in dogs, and it has been found to be effective against at least some parasitic copepod taxa.

According to Dorton, 1 Interceptor™ tablet (intended for large dogs weighing 51-100 pounds) weighs one gram and contains 23 milligrams of milbemycin oxime. One tablet is ground to powder and 25 milligrams is added to a small container of aquarium water and mixed (this might take quite a bit of stirring). This water containing 25 mg of the tablet is sufficient to treat 10 gallons of actual water volume in the aquarium. In other words, 1 tablet containing 23 mg of milbemycin oxime will treat 380 gallons, according to Dorton (400 gallons according to my calculation). A local school or university, laboratory, or larger water or wastewater treatment plant will have an analytical scale (or balance). They might perform weight analyses for you.*

  • Remove all shrimp and crabs from the aquarium. Remove mechanical filtration and activated carbon. Turn off UV sterilizers and protein skimmers (but water should still circulate through these vessels in order for these volumes of water to be medically treated as well).
  • Add a sufficient amount of medication to the aquarium. Allow treatment to proceed for 6 hours, and perform a 25% water change. Resume use of carbon, skimming, etc.
  • Repeat this procedure 7 days later, and again after 14 days.
  • * Dosage is apparently not as critical as suggested by Dorton, as time has confirmed that higher concentrations (5x or more than that recommended by Dorton) of milbemycin oxime does little, if any, harm to corals.

Milbemycin Oxime and Lufenuron (Sentinel™)

  • Manufacturer: Novartis AG
  • In addition to milbemycin, this product also contains lufenuron for flea control.

Lufenuron (Program™)

  • Manufacturer: Novartis AG
  • Not recommended for use as a coral treatment.

Ivermectin (Stromectol™, Ivomec™, HeartGard™, Iverhart Plus™, Tri-Heart Plus™ and Acarexx™)

Ivermectin is a treatment for lice, mites, ear mites and is also an antihelmitic (effective against roundworms, heartworms, and lungworms) in cattle and swine. It is also prescribed for humans as a treatment for Bancroft’s filariasis and scabies.

Wright (2009) suggests this treatment protocol: Dissolve Ivomec (1% solution) in propylene gycol (an alcohol). Dose at 0.75 mg/l per gallon (actual volume). Wright’s article used 34 mg in 45 gallons).

Turn off the protein skimmer, UV sterilizer, and canister filters and disperse the Ivomec solution in a strong stream of water within the aquarium. After 12 hours, filter water using fresh activated carbon and resume use of the protein skimmer and UV sterilization. Repeat this treatment every two weeks for a total of 3 times.

The author (Wright) cautions that this treatment might harm arthropods, mollusks, crustaceans, other invertebrates (I’m assuming he doesn’t mean corals other than the Acropora specimen mentioned in the article) and angelfishes.

MelaFix Marine

  • Manufacturer: Aquarium Pharmaceuticals
  • See details listed above. API recommends this product for whole-tank treatment, but these claims have not been evaluated by this writer.

Conclusions

Not all copepods that associate with scleractinians are harmful. However, our lack of knowledge forces us to make an assumption that corals crawling with copepods are in danger.

  • There are hundreds, perhaps thousands of coral parasites. It seems there are specialist parasites found in or on specific coral species, while others are generalists and might infest and feed on a number of coral species. Although there is some indication within the hobby that ‘bugs’ might adopt a new home coral species if their host dies, it will take years of work to establish how parasites behave in artificial environments.
  • It is not uncommon for hobbyists to mix Atlantic corals (sea whips, sea fans, Manicina, etc.) together with Pacific coral species. We understand nothing of how parasites from different locales interact with foreign potential hosts.
  • Parasitic copepods may introduce bacterial pathogens.
  • Many parasites are internal and are not readily apparent, where endoparasites living in the gastrovascualr cavities remain hidden from view. Stock (1988) discusses the ease which Pacific endoparasites are coaxed from host coral tissues. Internal parasites of Atlantic/Caribbean corals are more difficult to remove than those of their Pacific counterparts – indeed, this researcher states that parasites of the Family Corallovexia (and perhaps Corallonoxia) were apparent only after host tissues were chemically dissolved. Does this mean that current treatment protocols are incapable of purging host tissues of their copepod parasites? Without further documentation, this question must remain unanswered.
  • Some copepod parasites consume coral tissues, including symbiotic zooxanthellae, which are then incorporated into the parasites’ bodies. Presumably, the parasite forms a symbiotic relationship with Symbiodinium sp. Thus some parasites not only consume coral tissues but rob corals of the benefits of their algal symbionts. Large numbers of external parasites could also shade zooxanthellae and cause of loss of beneficial nutrient recycling.
  • The number of bugs on a coral is only part of the equation. It is the degree of trauma caused by the parasite, where the amount of damage is compared to the amount of tissue. Simply dividing corals into the categories of ‘large polyp’ and ‘small polyp’ could be insufficient in estimating potential impacts of parasites. In the case of SPS corals, the hobbyist should consider the porosity of the coral skeleton. Perforate skeletons are porous while imperforate skeletons lack these channels that often contain soft living coral tissues. For instance, Montipora and Porites corals are generally highly porous and superficial tissue damage is less likely to become a health issue. On other hand, some corals (such as Pocillopora meandrina) have non-porous, rock-hard skeletons and damage to the paper-thin layer of soft tissues simply covering the skeleton might have a far greater impact than the same amount of damage to a perforate coral. Acropora species are usually listed as possessing imperforate skeletons. However, those hobbyists with a lot of experience in fragging Acroporas have noted living tissue channels running within the skeleton. Hence, Acroporas defy a simple sorting and must be judged on a case-by-case basis. This could explain why ‘bugs’ are not much of an issue with soft corals.
  • Specific chemical treatments may not be a universal cure for coral parasites. There is evidence that a prescribed treatment will eliminate some ‘bugs’ but only irritate others.
  • Quite a few photographs exist of ectoparasites Tegastes, Parategastes, and others. Despite the large number of parasitic Xarifid copepods, no photographs of these bugs have been provided by hobbyists. This suggests endoparasites (despite being larger in size and in number of species) are not abundant in number in important aquarium coral species, or have simply been overlooked due to their hidden and/or tenacious nature. Current pre-treatment methods are encouraged, yet we do not know if they are effective against endoparasitic copepods.
  • Biological controls for some copepods are available, but these are sometimes a hit-or-miss proposition.
  • Without the presence of a host, some copepods (specifically the Tegastes(?) bug seen in Figure 7) will survive for only a few days (~48 hours, based on limited observations).
  • Hobbyists using medications for in-tank treatments should expect losses of livestock. This could be a result of sensitivity of the organism(s) to the toxic nature of the chemical, or perhaps as through secondary effects. To my knowledge, no one has investigated the responses of nitrifying bacteria to medications mentioned in this article. Nitrifying bacteria populations are generally more easily upset than their carbonaceous counterparts.

This article is but a small tool for use by serious hobbyists in answering many questions. Hobbyists are encouraged to photo-document individuals observed during parasitic outbreaks, as well as compare notes on those environmental factors possibly encouraging explosion of parasite populations.

For now, prevention of aquarium infestation has to rely to two simple procedures: Treatment to removal existing parasites followed by a quarantine period to prevent introduction of any surviving egg masses or adults. Once the corals are in the display aquarium, treatment and control of parasite infestations becomes much more complex in nature. Medications are simply a band aid for treatment of environmental factors aiding in an explosion of parasite populations and it unclear if present treatment protocols are effective against all parasitic genera. Investigations of biological controls are encouraged, but hobbyists should accept results are not guaranteed for either eradication of parasites or long-term survival of the predator.

Next time, we’ll examine copepod parasites found on soft corals, gorgonians and Tridacna clams.

Acknowledgements

Many thanks to Steve Ruddy of Coral Reef Ecosystems (www.coralreefecosystems) for supplying photographs, preserved specimens, and comments during the preparation of this article. Ken Lunde (KonaDog) obtained permission from Greg Ho for use of his photographs (www.ximinasphotography.com). Jake Adams and www.CoralIdea.com again provided images of Atlantic corals. Justin Medwieg (www.madfragsonline) shared some of his wonderful coral photographs.

Please direct questions to the comments section below.

Table Two. Parasitic Copepods, Listed by Host Coral. Copepod size is an average. See Table Three for a listing by Parasite.
CoralParasiteSize, ColorReference
Acrhelia horrescensXarifia plectrata1mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Acrhelia horrescensAnchimolgus abbreviatusHumes, 1991
Acrhelia horrescensAnchimolgus tenuipesHumes, 1991
Acropora abrotanoidesXarifia anomala1.25mmHumes, 1985
Acropora abrotanoidesXarifia breviramea1.74mmHumes, 1985
Acropora abrotanoidesXarifia sabiuraensis1.6mmHumes, 1985
Acropora abrotanoidesXarifia trituberata1.6mmHumes, 1985
Acropora convexaXarifia anomala1.25mmHumes, 1985
Acropora convexaXarifia sabiuraensis1.6mmHumes, 1985
Acropora convexaScyphuliger longicaudusKim, 2003
Acropora ‘corymbosa’ groupXarifia anomala1.25mmHumes, 1985
Acropora ‘corymbosa’ groupXarifia breviramea1.74mmHumes, 1985
Acropora ‘corymbosa’ groupXarifia gerlachi~2mmHumes, 1985
Acropora ‘corymbosa’ groupXarifia infrequens1.5mmHumes, 1985
Acropora ‘corymbosa’Xarifia linearis1.4mmNair, 1983
Acropora ‘corymbosa’ groupXarifia trituberata1.6mmHumes, 1985
Acropora ‘corymbosa’ groupXarifia tumorisa1.3mmHumes, 1985
Acropora ‘corymbosa’ groupXarifia ablusa1mmHumes, 1985
Acropora corymbosaScyphuliger pilosusKim, 2003
Acropora corymbosaScyphuliger pennatusKim, 2003
Acropora cymbicyanthusScyphuliger tenuatisHumes, 1990
Acropora cytheriaXarifia gerlachi~2mmHumes, 1985
Acropora cytheriaXarifia infrequens1.5mmHumes, 1985
Acropora cytheriaXarifia tenuis1.4mmHumes, 1985
Acropora digitifera (?)Xarifia ablusa1mmHumes, 1985
Acropora digitifera (?)Xarifia anomala1.25mmHumes, 1985
Acropora digitifera (?)Xarifia breviramea1.74mmHumes, 1985
Acropora digitifera (?)Xarifia gerlachi~2mmHumes, 1985
Acropora digitifera (?)Xarifia infrequens1.5mmHumes, 1985
Acropora digitifera (?)Xarifia linearis1.4mmNair, 1983
Acropora digitifera (?)Xarifia trituberata1.6mmHumes, 1985
Acropora digitifera (?)Xarifia tumorisa1.3mmHumes, 1985
Acropora elseyiXarifia ablusa1mmHumes, 1985
Acropora elseyiXarifia fastigata1.5mmHumes, 1985
Acropora elseyiXarifia tumorisa1.3mmHumes, 1985
Acropora exiguaAlteuthellopsis corallinaHumes, 1981b
Acropora exiguaXarifia breviramea1.74mmHumes, 1985
Acropora exiguaEcphysarion lobophorumHumes and Ho, 1968
Acropora exilisScyphuliger latusKim, 2003
Acropora exilisScyphuliger aristoidesHumes, 1993
Acropora exilisScyphuliger paucisurculusKim, 2003
Acropora floridaEcphysarion lobophorumHumes & Stock, 1973
Acropora floridaTegastes acroporanusHumes, 1981
Acropora floridaXarifia anomala1.25mmHumes, 1985
Acropora floridaXarifia breviramea1.74mmHumes, 1985
Acropora floridaXarifia gerlachi~2mmHumes, 1985
Acropora floridaXarifia pectinea1mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Acropora floridaXarifia sabiuraensis1.6mmHumes, 1985
Acropora floridaXarifia trituberata1.6mmHumes, 1985
Acropora floridaXarifia tumorisa1.3mmHumes, 1985
Acropora formosaXarifia basilica>3mm; opaque brown-gray, red eyeHumes, 1985
Acropora formosaXarifia bullifera1.35mm; opaque gray, red eyeHumes, 1985
Acropora formosaXarifia infrequens1.5mmHumes, 1985
Acropora formosaXarifia tumorisa1.3mmHumes, 1985
Acropora gemmiferaXarifia speciesHumes, 1985
Acropora gravidaXarifia anomalaHumes, 1994
Acropora gravidaXarifia brevirameaHumes, 1994
Acropora gravidaXarifia gerlachiHumes, 1994
Acropora gravidaXarifia pectineaHumes, 1994
Acropora gravidaXarifia sabiuraensisHumes, 1994
Acropora gravidaXarifia trituberataHumes, 1994
Acropora gravidaXarifia tumorisaHumes, 1994
Acropora hebesXarifia indica1.5mmNair, 1983
Acropora hebesXarifia laccadivensis1.6mmNair, 1983
Acropora hebesXarifia robusta1.7mmNair, 1983
Acropora humilisXarifia ablusa1mmHumes, 1985
Acropora humilisXarifia anomala1.25mmHumes, 1985
Acropora humilisXarifia breviramea1.74mmHumes, 1985
Acropora humilisXarifia gerlachi~2mmHumes, 1985
Acropora humilisXarifia infrequens1.5mmHumes, 1985
Acropora humilisXarifia linearis1.4mmNair, 1983
Acropora humilisXarifia longicauda1.4mmNair, 1983
Acropora humilisXarifia pectinea1mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Acropora humilisXarifia trituberata1.6mmHumes, 1985
Acropora humilisXarifia tumorisa1.3mmHumes, 1985
Acropora hyacinthusXarifia anomala1.25mmHumes, 1985
Acropora hyacinthusXarifia basilica>3mm; opaque brown-gray, red eyeHumes, 1985
Acropora hyacinthusXarifia breviramea1.74mmHumes, 1985
Acropora hyacinthusXarifia gerlachi~2mmHumes, 1985
Acropora hyacinthusXarifia infrequens1.5mmHumes, 1985
Acropora hyacinthusXarifia pectinea1mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Acropora hyacinthusXarifia sabiuraensis1.6mmHumes, 1985
Acropora hyacinthusXarifia trituberata1.6mmHumes, 1985
Acropora hyacinthusXarifia tumorisa1.3mmHumes, 1985
Acropora hyacinthusScyphuliger concavipesHumes, 1991
Acropora hyacinthusScyphuliger manifestusHumes, 1991
Acropora hyacinthusScyphuliger eumorphusHumes, 1993
Acropora intermedaXarifia anomala1.25mmHumes, 1985
Acropora intermedaXarifia breviramea1.74mmHumes, 1985
Acropora intermediaXarifia pectinea1mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Acropora intermediaXarifia sabiuraensis1.6mmHumes, 1985
Acropora intermediaXarifia trituberata1.6mmHumes, 1985
Acropora intermediaXarifia tumorisa1.3mmHumes, 1985
Acropora intermediaScyphuliger karangmiensisKim, 2007
Acropora milleporaXarifia breviramea1.74mmHumes, 1985
Acropora paliferaXarifia anomala1.25mmHumes, 1985
Acropora paliferaXarifia exuta2.5mmHumes, 1985
Acropora paliferaXarifia guttulifera2.4mmHumes, 1985
Acropora paliferaXarifia mucronata2.4mmHumes, 1985
Acropora paliferaSchedomolgus exciliculusHumes, 1993
Acropora paliferaEcphysarion spinulatumHumes, 1993
Acropora paliferaUnicispina latigentalisHumes, 1993
Acropora palmataCorallovexia similisStock, 1975
Acropora palmataCorallovexia sp.Herriot & Immerman, 1979
Acropora patulaLipochrus acroporinus
Acropora patulaXarifia pectineaHumes, 1985
Acropora patulaXarifia sabiuraensis1mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Acropora patulaXarifia trituberata1.6mmHumes, 1985
Acropora patulaXarifia tumorisa1.6mmHumes, 1985
Acropora patulaSchedomolgus idanus1.3mmHumes, 1985
Acropora pectinataXarifia sp.Misaki, 1978
Acropora pectinataXarifia sp.Misaki, 1978
Acropora rambleriLipochrus speciesHumes, 1993
Acropora rambleriXarifia ablusaHumes, 1985
Acropora rambleriXarifia breviramea1mmHumes, 1985
Acropora rambleriXarifia pectinea1.74mmHumes, 1985
Acropora rambleriXarifia sabiuraensis1mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Acropora rambleriXarifia trituberata1.6mmHumes, 1985
Acropora rosariaLipochrus acroporinus1.6mmHumes, 1985
Acropora rosariaXarifia ablusaHumes, 1985
Acropora rosariaXarifia fastigata1mmHumes, 1985
Acropora rosariaXarifia rosariae1.5mmHumes, 1985
Acropora rosariaEcphysarion ampullulum1.7mmHumes, 1985
Acropora rosariaLipochrus acroporinusHumes, 1993
Acropora sarmentosaXarifia pectineaHumes & Dojiri, 1982
Acropora sarmentosaXarifia tumorisa1mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Acropora sp.Xarifia anomala1.3mmHumes, 1985
Acropora sp.Xarifia gerlachi1.25mmHumes, 1985
Acropora sp. cf. A. teresXarifia gerlachi~2mmHumes, 1985
Acropora squarrosa (millepora)Xarifia tumorisa~2mmHumes, 1985
Acropora squarrosa (millepora)Scyphuliger placidus1.3mmHumes, 1985
Acropora squarrosa (millepora)Scyphuliger humesiKim, 2004
Acropora squarrosa (millepora)Scyphuliger vicinusKim, 2004
Acropora syringodesXarifia speciesHumes, 1991
Acropora validaXarifia brevirameaHumes, 1985
Alveopora catalaiAnchimolgus multidentatus1.74mmHumes, 1985
Alveopora mortensiXarifia mediolobataKim, 2003
Alveopora mortensiXarifia radians2.6mmHumes, 1985
Alveopora mortensiOdontomolgus mundulus2.3mmHumes, 1985
Alveopora sp.Xarifia brevicaudaHumes, 1974
Astreopora sp.Alteuthellopsis corallina1.35mm; opaque, red-orange intestine, red eyeHumes & Ho, 1968
Astreocheres astroidicolaAcontiophorus scutatisHumes, 1981b
Astroides calycularisStockmyzon murinipes
Astroides calycularisStockmyzon mucronipesBandera and Huys
Colpophyllia natansCorallavexia kristenseniBandera & Huys, 2008
Colpophyllia natansCorallavexia mixtibrachiumStock, 1975
Colpophyllia natansCorallovexia mediobrachiumStock, 1975
Cyphastrea chalcidiumXarifia villosaHerriot & Immerman, 1979
Cyphastrea ocellinaTegastes gemmus1.2mmHumes, 1985
Dendrogyra sp.Corallovexia sp.Stock, 1975
Dichocoenia sp.Corallovexia sp.Stock, 1975
Diploria clivosaCorallovexia mediobrachiumHumes, 1984
Cyphastrea sp.Diallagomolgus sp.Herriot & Immerman, 1979
Diploria labyrinthformisCorallavexia brevibrachiumHumes, 1994
Diploria strigosaCorallavexia mediobrachiumStock, 1975
Echinopora gemmaceaXarifia disparStock, 1975
Echinopora horridaXarifia echinoporae1.5mmHumes, 1985
Echinopora horridaAnchimolgus exsertus2.3mmHumes, 1985
Echinopora lamellosaXarifia disparHumes, 1991
Echinopora lamellosaXarifia echinoporae1.5mmHumes, 1985
Echinopora lamellosaAnchimolgus tridentatus2.3mmHumes, 1985
Echinopora sp.Xarifia disparKim, 2003
Eunicella singularisStockmyzon mucronipes1.5mmHumes, 1985
Euphyllia glabrescensXarifia gracilipesBandera & Huys, 2008
Eusmilia fastigataCorallonoxia baki~2mmHumes, 1985
FaviaAmarda sp.
Favia favusCerioxynus alatusStock, 1975
Favia sp.Orstomella faviaeHumes, 1994
Favia sp.Rakotoa proteusHumes, 1994
Favia sp.Anchimolgus sp.2.3mm; bright red, dark red eyeHumes & Ho, 1968
Favia sp.Andrianellus exsertidensHumes, 1994
Favia sp.Stockia sp.Humes, 1994
Favites flexuosaXarifia torigeraHumes, 1994
Favites halicoraCerioxynus faviticolusHumes, 1994
Favites pentagonaCerioxynus moluccensis2.3mm; pale brown w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Favites pentagonaRakotoa ceramensisHumes, 1994
Favites virensCerioxynus bandensisHumes, 1994
Fungia concinnaAnchimolgus maximusHumes, 1979
Fungia echinataXarifia speciesHumes, 1994
Fungia echinataAnchimolgus latensKim, 2003
Fungia echinataAnchimolgus pandusHumes, 1985
Fungia echinataSchedomolgus tenerHumes, 1978
Fungia fungitesSchedomolgus dumbensisHumes, 1978
Fungia fungitesOdontomolgus scitulusHumes, 1973
Fungia paumotensisAnchimolgus orectusKim, 2003
Fungia paumotensisAnchimolgus punctilisHumes, 1973
Fungia speciesZazaranus fungicolusHumes, 1978
Fungia speciesOdontomolgus flammeusHumes, 1978
Fungia speciesAnchimolgus hastatusHumes, 1985
Galaxea astreataXarifia speciesKim, 2007
Galaxea fascicularisXarifia exserensKim, 2007
Galaxea fascicularisAnchimolgus compressusHumes, 1985
Galaxea fascicularisAnchimolgus contractus2.3mm; opaque gray, red eyeHumes, 1985
Galaxea fascicularisAnchimolgus moluccanusHumes, 1996
Galaxea fascicularisAnchimolgus nastuasHumes, 1979
Gardineroseris planulataAnchimolgus angustusHumes, 1996
Gardineroseris planulataXarifia clavellataHumes, 1996
Gardineroseris planulataXarifia filataHumes, 1992
Gardineroseris planulataXarifia rasilis0.8mmHumes, 1985
Gardineroseris planulataOdontomolgus mucosus~1mm; Gray, red eyeHumes, 1985
Gardineroseris planulataOdontomolgus pumulis0.9mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Gardineroseris planulataOdontomolgus uniovigerKim, 2006
Gardineroseris planulataAnchimolgus eparmatoidesHumes, 1992
Gardineroseris planulataAnchimolgus gibberulusKim, 2006
Gardineroseris planulataAnchimolgus stellusHumes & Stock, 1972
Goniastrea retiformisAlteuthellopsis corallinaHumes, 1992
Goniastrea retiformisAmarda curvusHumes, 1972
Goniastrea retiformisAmarda goniastraeaHumes, 1981b
Goniastrea retiformisOdontomolgus parvusKim, 2007
Goniopora minorWedanus formosanusHumes, 1995
Goniopora pedunculataXarifia hadraKim, 2007
Goniopora pedunculataXarifia scutipesCheng et al., 2008
Goniopora speciesXarifia resex1.7mmHumes, 1985
Goniopora speciesAnchimolgus conformatus2mmHumes, 1985
Goniopora speciesAnchimolgus mimeticus1.4mmHumes, 1985
Goniopora speciesOdontomolgus campulusHumes & Stock, 1973
Goniopora stokesiAnchimolgus brevariusHumes, 1995
Goniopora stokesiAnchimolgus gigasHumes, 1995
Goniopora tenuidensXarifia hadraHumes, 1995
Goniopora tenuidensXarifia resexHumes & Stock, 1995
Goniopora tenuidensXarifia scutipes1.7mmHumes, 1985
Goniopora tenuidensWedanus inconstans1.4mmHumes, 1985
Gyrosmilia interruptaXarifia apertipes2mmHumes, 1985
Halomitra pileusOdontomolgus fultusHumes, 1978
Heliofungia actiniformisOdontomolgus decensHumes, 1985
Hydnophora exesaXarifia comptulaHumes & Stock, 1972
Hydnophora exesaXarifia curtataHumes and Stock, 1972
Hydnophora exesaPanjakus hydnophorae2.5mmHumes, 1985
Hydnophora microconusPanjakus iratusUp to 3.5mmHumes & Ho, 1968
Hydnophora microconusPanjakus saccipesHumes and Stock, 1973
Hydnophora microconusAnchimolgus paragensisKim, 2005
Hydnophora rigidaPanjakus eumecesHumes, 1991
Hydnophora sp.Humesiella corallicolaKim, 2007
Hydnophora sp.Panjakus sp.Kim, 2005
Hydnophora sp.Panjakus hydnophorae1.5mmSebastian & Pillai, 1973
Hydnophora tenellaPanjakus hydnophoraeHumes, 1994
Leptoria phrygiaXarifia speciesHumes and Stock, 1973
Leptoria tenuisPanjakus directusHumes and Stock, 1973
Leptoria tenuisPanjakus necopinusHumes, 1985
Lobophyllia corymbosaOrstomella lobophylliaeHumes, 1995
Lobophyllia costataOrstomella lobophylliaeHumes, 1995
Manicina areolataCorallavexia longibrachium1.4mm; bright red, dark red eyeHumes & Ho, 1968
Meandrina meandritesCorallovexia sp.1.4mm; bright red, dark red eyeHumes & Ho, 1968
Meandrina meandritesCorallonoxia bakiStock, 1975
Merulina ampliataAlteuthellopsis corallinaHerriot & Immerman, 1979
Merulina ampliataAmardopsis merulinaeStock, 1975
Merulina ampliataXarifia speciesHumes, 1981b
Merulina ampliataOdontomolgus bulbalisHumes 1994
Montastrea brasilianaCorallavexia ventrospinaHumes, 1985
Montastrea cavernosaCorallavexia dorsospinosa minorHumes. 1991
Montastrea cavernosaCorallavexia dorsospinosaStock, 1975
Montastrea cavernosaCorallovexia sp.Stock, 1975
Montastrea curtaCerioxynus montastreaeStock, 1975
Montipora caliculataHaplomolgus incolumisHerriot & Immerman, 1979
Montipora compositaXarifia anoplaHumes, 1994
Montipora compositaXarifia heteromelesHumes, 1991
Montipora compressaOdontomolgus forhaniHumes, 1985
Montipora foliosaXarifia species~1mmHumes, 1985
Montipora ramosaXarifia pectinea (only 1 found)Humes & Stock, 1972
Montipora ramosaXarifia temnuraHumes, 1985
Montipora sinensisXarifia temnura1mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Montipora sp.Xarifia anopla1.5mm; opaque, intestine red-brown, red eyeHumes & Ho, 1968
Montipora sp.Xarifia extensa1.5mm; opaque, intestine red-brown, red eyeHumes & Ho, 1968
Montipora sp.Xarifia speciesHumes, 1985
Montipora stellataXarifia species2.5mmHumes, 1985
Montipora undataXarifia anoplaHumes, 1985
Montipora undataXarifia heteromelesHumes, 1985
Montipora undataXarifia syntomaHumes, 1985
Montipora undataHaplomolgus subdeficiens~1mmHumes, 1985
Montipora undataXarifia temnura0.8mmHumes, 1985
Montipora verilliAlteuthellopsis corallinaHumes, 1978
Montipora verrucosaTegastes gemmeus1.5mm; opaque, intestine red-brown, red eyeHumes & Ho, 1968
Montipora verrucosaXarifia apertipesHumes, 1984
Mussusmillia hispidaHarpacticoidaNogueira, 2003
Mycetophyllia lamarckianaCorallovexia sp.Humes, 1984
Mycetophyllia lamarckianaCorallovexia sp. #2Humes, 1985
Oulophyllia crispaCerioxynus oulophilliaHerriot & Immerman, 1979
Oxypora sp.Xarifia speciesHerriot & Immerman, 1979
Pachyseris rugosaXarifia acicularisHumes, 1994
Pachyseris speciosaXarifia exiguaHumes, 1985
Pachyseris speciosaXarifia laminellispinosaGray, red eyeHumes, 1985
Parahalometra robustaXarifia species0.8mm; light pale brownish, red eyeHumes & Ho, 1968
Parahalometra robustaAnchimolgus convexus1.9mmHumes & Ho, 1968
Pavona angularisOdontomolgus actinophorusHumes, 1985
Pavona angulataXarifia longipesHumes, 1978
Pavona angulataOdontomolgus actinophorusHumes and Stock, 1973
Pavona cactusXarifia finitima1.5mmHumes, 1985
Pavona cactusOdontomolgus actinophorusHumes and Stock, 1973
Pavona danaiOdontomolgus actinophorus1mm; gray, red eyeHumes, 1985
Pavona danaiOdontomolgus pavonusHumes and Stock, 1973
Pavona danaiAnchimolgus gracilipesHumes and Stock, 1973
Pavona sp.Xarifia diminutaKim, 2007
Pavona variansXarifia finitimaKim, 2007
Pavona venustaOdontomolgus actinophorus1.35mmHumes, 1985
Pavona sp.Odontomolgus rhadinusHumes & Stock, 1973
Pectinia lactucaMandobius regalis1mm; gray, red eyeHumes, 1985
Physogyra lichensteiniXarifia gradataHumes and Stock, 1973
Physogyra lichensteiniXarifia minaxHumes, 1994
Platygyra astreiformisPanjakus platygyrae1.3mmHumes, 1985
Platygyra lamellinaPanjakus platygyrae1.4mmHumes, 1985
Platygyra daedalaPanjakus daedalaHumes, 1994
Platygyra daedalaAlteuthellopsis corallinaHumes and Stock, 1973
Platygyra ryukyuensisPanjakus fastigatusHumes and Stock, 1973
Platygyra ryukyuensisPanjakus parvipesHumes, 1981b
Platygyra ryukyuensisAndrianellus papillipesKim, 2005
Platygyra sinensisXarifia speciesKim, 2005
Platygyra sp.Alteuthellopsis corallinaKim, 2007
Platygyra sp.Xarifia disparHumes, 1985
Platygyra sp.Panjakus sp.Humes, 1981b
Platygyra daedalaAndrianellus exsertidens1.5mmHumes, 1985
Plerogyra sp.GelastomolgusHumes & Stock, 1973
Pocillopora damicornisAlteuthellopsis corallinaHumes, 1994
Pocillopora damicornisXarifia fimbriataHumes, 1994
Pocillopora damicornisXarifia fissilisHumes, 1981b
Pocillopora damicornisXarifia jugalis~1.5mmHumes, 1985
Pocillopora damicornisXarifia obesa~2mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Pocillopora damicornisXarifia quinaria1.4mm; gray w/ red eyeCheng et al., 2007
Pocillopora damicornisXarifia sectilis1.4mmHumes, 1985
Pocillopora damicornisXarifia serrataHumes, 1994
Pocillopora damicornisAnchimolgus partenuides1.7mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Pocillopora damicornis var. caespitosaXarifia fimbriata1.3mmHumes, 1985
Pocillopora damicornis var. caespitosaXarifia imparilisKim, 2007
Pocillopora damicornis var. caespitosaXarifia jugalis~1.5mmHumes, 1985
Pocillopora damicornis var. caespitosaXarifia quinaria1.5mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Pocillopora danaeXarifia obesa1.4mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Pocillopora eydouxiXarifia comata1.3mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Pocillopora eydouxiXarifia fimbriata~1.5mm; Gray to tan w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Pocillopora eydouxiXarifia imparilis~1.2mmHumes, 1985
Pocillopora eydouxiXarifia jugalis~1.5mmHumes, 1985
Pocillopora eydouxiXarifia maldivensis1.5mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Pocillopora eydouxiXarifia obesa1.4mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Pocillopora eydouxiXarifia sectilis1.4mmHumes, 1985
Pocillopora ligulataXarifia tenta~1.5mm; Gray to tan w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Pocillopora sp.Tegastes georgei1.7mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Pocillopora sp.Xarifia fimbriata1mm; gray to tan w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Pocillopora sp.Xarifia maldivensisHumes, 1981
Pocillopora sp.Xarifia obesa~1.5mmHumes, 1985
Pocillopora sp.Xarifia serrata1.4mmHumes, 1985
Pocillopora sp. cf. verrucosaXarifia comata~1.5mm; Gray to tan w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Pocillopora sp. cf. verrucosaXarifia obesa1.3mmHumes, 1985
Pocillopora sp. cf. verrucosaXarifia serrata~1.2mmHumes, 1985
Pocillopora verrucosaTegastes paulipes~1.5mm; Gray to tan w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Pocillopora verrucosaXarifia comata1.3mmHumes, 1985
Pocillopora verrucosaXarifia gibberulaHumes, 1984
Pocillopora verrucosaXarifia imparilis~1.2mmHumes, 1985
Pocillopora verrucosaXarifia obesa1.3mm gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Pocillopora verrucosaXarifia serrata1.5mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Pocillopora verrucosaXarifia tenta~1.5mm; Gray to tan w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Pocillopora verrucosaPanjakus bidentis1.3mmHumes, 1985
Porites (andrewsi?)Monomolgus unihastatus1mm; gray to tan w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Porites (nigrescens?)Monomolgus unihastatusKim, 2004
Porites latistellaXarifia longaHumes and Stock, 1973
Porites lobataEuryte verecundaHumes and Stock, 1973
Porites lobataHemicyclops regalisCheng et al., 2007
Porites lobataMonomolgus torulusHumes, 1992
Porites lobataKombia incrassataHumes, 1994
Porites luteaOrstomella yaliuensisHumes, 1984
Porites luteaXarifia speciesHumes, 1984
Porites luteaKombia curvataChen et al., 2009
Porites monticulosaKombia imminensHumes, 1985
Porites somaliensisKombia angulataHumes & Stock, 1973
Porites sp.Kombia avitusNair & Pillai, 1986
Porites nigrescensMonomolgus baculigeresHumes, 1979
Psammocora sp.Monomolgus psammocoraeKim, 2007
Psammocora sp.Kombia angulataHumes, 1979
Psammocora contiguaXarifia diminutaHumes and Stock, 1973
Psammocora contiguaXarifia imitansHumes, 1962
Psammocora contiguaOdontomolgus actinophorus1.35mmHumes, 1985
Psammocora contiguaNumboa porosaHumes, 1997
Psammocora contiguaOdontomolgus rhadinus1.1mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Psammocora digitataXarifia formosaHumes and Stock, 1973
Psammocora digitataXarifia imitansHumes & Ho, 1967
Psammocora logianensisDumbeana undulatipes1.2mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1996
Psammocora logianensisEmunoa proknta1.1mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1996
Psammocora logianensisLipochaetes extrusisHumes, 1996
Psammocora samoensisOdontomolgus exilipesHumes, 1995
Psammocora samoensisOdontomolgus geminusHumes, 1995
Psammocora sp.Xarifia diminutaKim, 2003
Psammocora sp. cf. contiguaXarifia diminutaKim, 2003
Psammocora togianensisNumboa porosaHumes, 1997
Scapophyllia cylindricaXarifia simplex1.35mmHumes, 1985
Seriatopora caliendrumXarifia reducta1.35mmHumes, 1985
Seriatopora hystrixXarifia eminula1.8mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Seriatopora hystrixXarifia levis1.1mmHumes, 1985
Seriatopora hystrixXarifia obesaOpaque gray, red eyeHumes & Ho, 1968
Seriatopora hystrixXarifia reducta~1mm; tan w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Seriatopora hystrixXarifia umbonata~1.5mm; Gray to tan w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Seriatopora hystrixXarifia varialabrata1.1mmHumes, 1985
Seriatopora hystrixAnchiomolgus tenuipes1.2mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Seriatopora hystrixAnchimolgus noumensis0.8mm; light pale brown w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Seriatopora octopteraXarifia reductaKim, 2003
Seriatopora sp.Xarifia reductaKim, 2003
Stereonephthya ulicoidesParategastes conexusHumes, 1993
Stylophora mordaxXarifia decorata1.1mmHumes, 1985
Stylophora mordaxXarifia lissaHumes, 1984
Stylophora pistillataTegastes georgei1.5mm; opaque, intestine red-brown, red eyeHumes & Ho, 1968
Stylophora pistillataXarifia decorata1.4mm; opaque, red-brown intestine, red eyeHumes, 1985
Stylophora pistillataXarifia dissonaHumes, 1981
Stylophora pistillataXarifia lissa1.5mm; opaque, intestine red-brown, red eyeHumes & Ho, 1968
Stylophora pistillataXarifia obesa1.45mm; Gray, intestine dk. Brown, red eyeHumes, 1985
Stylophora pistillataXarifia sectilis1.4mmHumes, 1985
Stylophora pistillata var. palmataXarifia obesa~1.5mm; Gray to tan w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Stylophora sp.Xarifia decorata1.7mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Stylophora sp.Xarifia lissa~1.5mm; Gray to tan w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Stylophora sp.Xarifia species1.5mm; opaque, intestine red-brown, red eyeHumes & Ho, 1968
Stylophora subseriataXarifia serrata1.4mmHumes, 1985
Tubastrea aureaXarifia insolitaHumes, 1985
Tubastrea aureaXarifia insolita1.3mmHumes, 1985
Tubastrea sp.Xarifia speciesHumes, 1985
Turbinaria danaeXarifia laceransCheng et al., 2007
Turbinaria danaeXarifia unicataHumes, 1985
Turbinaria sp. (T. elegans?)Xarifia hamata~1mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Wedanus inconstansGoniopora minor1.6mm; gray w/ red eyeHumes, 1985
Table Three. Listing by Parasite
ParasiteCoral
Xarifia plectrataAcrhelia horrescens
Anchimolgus abbreviatusAcrhelia horrescens
Anchimolgus tenuipesAcrhelia horrescens
Xarifia anomalaAcropora abrotanoides
Xarifia brevirameaAcropora abrotanoides
Xarifia sabiuraensisAcropora abrotanoides
Xarifia trituberataAcropora abrotanoides
Xarifia anomalaAcropora convexa
Xarifia sabiuraensisAcropora convexa
Scyphuliger longicaudusAcropora convexa
Xarifia anomalaAcropora ‘corymbosa’ group
Xarifia brevirameaAcropora ‘corymbosa’ group
Xarifia gerlachiAcropora ‘corymbosa’ group
Xarifia infrequensAcropora ‘corymbosa’ group
Xarifia linearisAcropora ‘corymbosa’
Xarifia trituberataAcropora ‘corymbosa’ group
Xarifia tumorisaAcropora ‘corymbosa’ group
Xarifia ablusaAcropora ‘corymbosa’ group
Scyphuliger pilosusAcropora corymbosa
Scyphuliger pennatusAcropora corymbosa
Scyphuliger tenuatisAcropora cymbicyanthus
Xarifia gerlachiAcropora cytheria
Xarifia infrequensAcropora cytheria
Xarifia tenuisAcropora cytheria
Xarifia ablusaAcropora digitifera (?)
Xarifia anomalaAcropora digitifera (?)
Xarifia brevirameaAcropora digitifera (?)
Xarifia gerlachiAcropora digitifera (?)
Xarifia infrequensAcropora digitifera (?)
Xarifia linearisAcropora digitifera (?)
Xarifia trituberataAcropora digitifera (?)
Xarifia tumorisaAcropora digitifera (?)
Xarifia ablusaAcropora elseyi
Xarifia fastigataAcropora elseyi
Xarifia tumorisaAcropora elseyi
Alteuthellopsis corallinaAcropora exigua
Xarifia brevirameaAcropora exigua
Ecphysarion lobophorumAcropora exigua
Scyphuliger latusAcropora exilis
Scyphuliger aristoidesAcropora exilis
Scyphuliger paucisurculusAcropora exilis
Ecphysarion lobophorumAcropora florida
Tegastes acroporanusAcropora florida
Xarifia anomalaAcropora florida
Xarifia brevirameaAcropora florida
Xarifia gerlachiAcropora florida
Xarifia pectineaAcropora florida
Xarifia sabiuraensisAcropora florida
Xarifia trituberataAcropora florida
Xarifia tumorisaAcropora florida
Xarifia basilicaAcropora formosa
Xarifia bulliferaAcropora formosa
Xarifia infrequensAcropora formosa
Xarifia tumorisaAcropora formosa
Xarifia speciesAcropora gemmifera
Xarifia anomalaAcropora gravida
Xarifia brevirameaAcropora gravida
Xarifia gerlachiAcropora gravida
Xarifia pectineaAcropora gravida
Xarifia sabiuraensisAcropora gravida
Xarifia trituberataAcropora gravida
Xarifia tumorisaAcropora gravida
Xarifia indicaAcropora hebes
Xarifia laccadivensisAcropora hebes
Xarifia robustaAcropora hebes
Xarifia ablusaAcropora humilis
Xarifia anomalaAcropora humilis
Xarifia brevirameaAcropora humilis
Xarifia gerlachiAcropora humilis
Xarifia infrequensAcropora humilis
Xarifia linearisAcropora humilis
Xarifia longicaudaAcropora humilis
Xarifia pectineaAcropora humilis
Xarifia trituberataAcropora humilis
Xarifia tumorisaAcropora humilis
Xarifia anomalaAcropora hyacinthus
Xarifia basilicaAcropora hyacinthus
Xarifia brevirameaAcropora hyacinthus
Xarifia gerlachiAcropora hyacinthus
Xarifia infrequensAcropora hyacinthus
Xarifia pectineaAcropora hyacinthus
Xarifia sabiuraensisAcropora hyacinthus
Xarifia trituberataAcropora hyacinthus
Xarifia tumorisaAcropora hyacinthus
Scyphuliger concavipesAcropora hyacinthus
Scyphuliger manifestusAcropora hyacinthus
Scyphuliger eumorphusAcropora hyacinthus
Xarifia anomalaAcropora intermeda
Xarifia brevirameaAcropora intermeda
Xarifia pectineaAcropora intermedia
Xarifia sabiuraensisAcropora intermedia
Xarifia trituberataAcropora intermedia
Xarifia tumorisaAcropora intermedia
Scyphuliger karangmiensisAcropora intermedia
Xarifia brevirameaAcropora millepora
Xarifia anomalaAcropora palifera
Xarifia exutaAcropora palifera
Xarifia guttuliferaAcropora palifera
Xarifia mucronataAcropora palifera
Schedomolgus exciliculusAcropora palifera
Ecphysarion spinulatumAcropora palifera
Unicispina latigentalisAcropora palifera
Corallavexia similisAcropora palmata
Corallovexia sp.Acropora palmata
Lipochrus acroporinusAcropora patula
Xarifia pectineaAcropora patula
Xarifia sabiuraensisAcropora patula
Xarifia trituberataAcropora patula
Xarifia tumorisaAcropora patula
Schedomolgus idanusAcropora patula
Xarifia sp.Acropora pectinata
Xarifia sp.Acropora pectinata
Lipochrus speciesAcropora rambleri
Xarifia ablusaAcropora rambleri
Xarifia brevirameaAcropora rambleri
Xarifia pectineaAcropora rambleri
Xarifia sabiuraensisAcropora rambleri
Xarifia trituberataAcropora rambleri
Lipochrus acroporinusAcropora rosaria
Xarifia ablusaAcropora rosaria
Xarifia fastigataAcropora rosaria
Xarifia rosariaeAcropora rosaria
Ecphysarion ampullulumAcropora rosaria
Lipochrus acroporinusAcropora rosaria
Xarifia pectineaAcropora sarmentosa
Xarifia tumorisaAcropora sarmentosa
Xarifia anomalaAcropora sp.
Xarifia gerlachiAcropora sp.
Xarifia gerlachiAcropora sp. cf. A. teres
Xarifia tumorisaAcropora squarrosa (millepora)
Scyphuliger placidusAcropora squarrosa (millepora)
Scyphuliger humesiAcropora squarrosa (millepora)
Scyphuliger vicinusAcropora squarrosa (millepora)
Xarifia speciesAcropora syringodes
Xarifia brevirameaAcropora valida
Anchimolgus multidentatusAlveopora catalai
Xarifia mediolobataAlveopora mortensi
Xarifia radiansAlveopora mortensi
Odontomolgus mundulusAlveopora mortensi
Xarifia brevicaudaAlveopora sp.
Alteuthellopsis corallinaAstreopora sp.
Acontiophorus scutatisAstreocheres astroidicola
Stockmyzon murinipesAstroides calycularis
Stockmyzon mucronipesAstroides calycularis
Corallavexia kristenseniColpophyllia natans
Corallavexia mixtibrachiumColpophyllia natans
Corallovexia mediobrachiumColpophyllia natans
Xarifia villosaCyphastrea chalcidium
Tegastes gemmusCyphastrea ocellina
Corallovexia sp.Dendrogyra sp.
Corallovexia sp.Dichocoenia sp.
Corallovexia mediobrachiumDiploria clivosa
Diallagomolgus sp.Cyphastrea sp.
Corallavexia brevibrachiumDiploria labyrinthformis
Corallavexia mediobrachiumDiploria strigosa
Xarifia disparEchinopora gemmacea
Xarifia echinoporaeEchinopora horrida
Anchimolgus exsertusEchinopora horrida
Xarifia disparEchinopora lamellosa
Xarifia echinoporaeEchinopora lamellosa
Anchimolgus tridentatusEchinopora lamellosa
Xarifia disparEchinopora sp.
Stockmyzon mucronipesEunicella singularis
Xarifia gracilipesEuphyllia glabrescens
Corallonoxia bakiEusmilia fastigata
Amarda sp.Favia
Cerioxynus alatusFavia favus
Orstomella faviaeFavia sp.
Rakotoa proteusFavia sp.
Anchimolgus sp.Favia sp.
Andrianellus exsertidensFavia sp.
Stockia sp.Favia sp.
Xarifia torigeraFavites flexuosa
Cerioxynus faviticolusFavites halicora
Cerioxynus moluccensisFavites pentagona
Rakotoa ceramensisFavites pentagona
Cerioxynus bandensisFavites virens
Anchimolgus maximusFungia concinna
Xarifia speciesFungia echinata
Anchimolgus latensFungia echinata
Anchimolgus pandusFungia echinata
Schedomolgus tenerFungia echinata
Schedomolgus dumbensisFungia fungites
Odontomolgus scitulusFungia fungites
Anchimolgus orectusFungia paumotensis
Anchimolgus punctilisFungia paumotensis
Zazaranus fungicolusFungia species
Odontomolgus flammeusFungia species
Anchimolgus hastatusFungia species
Xarifia speciesGalaxea astreata
Xarifia exserensGalaxea fascicularis
Anchimolgus compressusGalaxea fascicularis
Anchimolgus contractusGalaxea fascicularis
Anchimolgus moluccanusGalaxea fascicularis
Anchimolgus nastuasGalaxea fascicularis
Anchimolgus angustusGardineroseris planulata
Xarifia clavellataGardineroseris planulata
Xarifia filataGardineroseris planulata
Xarifia rasilisGardineroseris planulata
Odontomolgus mucosusGardineroseris planulata
Odontomolgus pumulisGardineroseris planulata
Odontomolgus uniovigerGardineroseris planulata
Anchimolgus eparmatoidesGardineroseris planulata
Anchimolgus gibberulusGardineroseris planulata
Anchimolgus stellusGardineroseris planulata
Alteuthellopsis corallinaGoniastrea retiformis
Amarda curvusGoniastrea retiformis
Amarda goniastraeaGoniastrea retiformis
Odontomolgus parvusGoniastrea retiformis
Wedanus formosanusGoniopora minor
Xarifia hadraGoniopora pedunculata
Xarifia scutipesGoniopora pedunculata
Xarifia resexGoniopora species
Anchimolgus conformatusGoniopora species
Anchimolgus mimeticusGoniopora species
Odontomolgus campulusGoniopora species
Anchimolgus brevariusGoniopora stokesi
Anchimolgus gigasGoniopora stokesi
Xarifia hadraGoniopora tenuidens
Xarifia resexGoniopora tenuidens
Xarifia scutipesGoniopora tenuidens
Wedanus inconstansGoniopora tenuidens
Xarifia apertipesGyrosmilia interrupta
Odontomolgus fultusHalomitra pileus
Odontomolgus decensHeliofungia actiniformis
Xarifia comptulaHydnophora exesa
Xarifia curtataHydnophora exesa
Panjakus hydnophoraeHydnophora exesa
Panjakus iratusHydnophora microconus
Panjakus saccipesHydnophora microconus
Anchimolgus paragensisHydnophora microconus
Panjakus eumecesHydnophora rigida
Humesiella corallicolaHydnophora sp.
Panjakus sp.Hydnophora sp.
Panjakus hydnophoraeHydnophora sp.
Panjakus hydnophoraeHydnophora tenella
Xarifia speciesLeptoria phrygia
Panjakus directusLeptoria tenuis
Panjakus necopinusLeptoria tenuis
Orstomella lobophylliaeLobophyllia corymbosa
Orstomella lobophylliaeLobophyllia costata
Corallavexia longibrachiumManicina areolata
Corallovexia sp.Meandrina meandrites
Corallonoxia bakiMeandrina meandrites
Alteuthellopsis corallinaMerulina ampliata
Amardopsis merulinaeMerulina ampliata
Xarifia speciesMerulina ampliata
Odontomolgus bulbalisMerulina ampliata
Corallavexia ventrospinaMontastrea brasiliana
Corallavexia dorsospinosa minorMontastrea cavernosa
Corallavexia dorsospinosaMontastrea cavernosa
Corallovexia sp.Montastrea cavernosa
Cerioxynus montastreaeMontastrea curta
Haplomolgus incolumisMontipora caliculata
Xarifia anoplaMontipora composita
Xarifia heteromelesMontipora composita
Odontomolgus forhaniMontipora compressa
Xarifia speciesMontipora foliosa
Xarifia pectinea (only 1 found)Montipora ramosa
Xarifia temnuraMontipora ramosa
Xarifia temnuraMontipora sinensis
Xarifia anoplaMontipora sp.
Xarifia extensaMontipora sp.
Xarifia speciesMontipora sp.
Xarifia speciesMontipora stellata
Xarifia anoplaMontipora undata
Xarifia heteromelesMontipora undata
Xarifia syntomaMontipora undata
Haplomolgus subdeficiensMontipora undata
Xarifia temnuraMontipora undata
Alteuthellopsis corallinaMontipora verilli
Tegastes gemmeusMontipora verrucosa
Xarifia apertipesMontipora verrucosa
HarpacticoidaMussusmillia hispida
Corallovexia sp.Mycetophyllia lamarckiana
Corallovexia sp. #2Mycetophyllia lamarckiana
Cerioxynus oulophilliaOulophyllia crispa
Xarifia speciesOxypora sp.
Xarifia acicularisPachyseris rugosa
Xarifia exiguaPachyseris speciosa
Xarifia laminellispinosaPachyseris speciosa
Xarifia speciesParahalometra robusta
Anchimolgus convexusParahalometra robusta
Odontomolgus actinophorusPavona angularis
Xarifia longipesPavona angulata
Odontomolgus actinophorusPavona angulata
Xarifia finitimaPavona cactus
Odontomolgus actinophorusPavona cactus
Odontomolgus actinophorusPavona danai
Odontomolgus pavonusPavona danai
Anchimolgus gracilipesPavona danai
Xarifia diminutaPavona sp.
Xarifia finitimaPavona varians
Odontomolgus actinophorusPavona venusta
Odontomolgus rhadinusPavona sp.
Mandobius regalisPectinia lactuca
Xarifia gradataPhysogyra lichensteini
Xarifia minaxPhysogyra lichensteini
Panjakus platygyraePlatygyra astreiformis
Panjakus platygyraePlatygyra lamellina
Panjakus daedalaPlatygyra daedala
Alteuthellopsis corallinaPlatygyra daedala
Panjakus fastigatusPlatygyra ryukyuensis
Panjakus parvipesPlatygyra ryukyuensis
Andrianellus papillipesPlatygyra ryukyuensis
Xarifia speciesPlatygyra sinensis
Alteuthellopsis corallinaPlatygyra sp.
Xarifia disparPlatygyra sp.
Panjakus sp.Platygyra sp.
Andrianellus exsertidensPlatygyra daedala
GelastomolgusPlerogyra sp.
Alteuthellopsis corallinaPocillopora damicornis
Xarifia fimbriataPocillopora damicornis
Xarifia fissilisPocillopora damicornis
Xarifia jugalisPocillopora damicornis
Xarifia obesaPocillopora damicornis
Xarifia quinariaPocillopora damicornis
Xarifia sectilisPocillopora damicornis
Xarifia serrataPocillopora damicornis
Anchimolgus partenuidesPocillopora damicornis
Xarifia fimbriataPocillopora damicornis var. caespitosa
Xarifia imparilisPocillopora damicornis var. caespitosa
Xarifia jugalisPocillopora damicornis var. caespitosa
Xarifia quinariaPocillopora damicornis var. caespitosa
Xarifia obesaPocillopora danae
Xarifia comataPocillopora eydouxi
Xarifia fimbriataPocillopora eydouxi
Xarifia imparilisPocillopora eydouxi
Xarifia jugalisPocillopora eydouxi
Xarifia maldivensisPocillopora eydouxi
Xarifia obesaPocillopora eydouxi
Xarifia sectilisPocillopora eydouxi
Xarifia tentaPocillopora ligulata
Tegastes georgeiPocillopora sp.
Xarifia fimbriataPocillopora sp.
Xarifia maldivensisPocillopora sp.
Xarifia obesaPocillopora sp.
Xarifia serrataPocillopora sp.
Xarifia comataPocillopora sp. cf. verrucosa
Xarifia obesaPocillopora sp. cf. verrucosa
Xarifia serrataPocillopora sp. cf. verrucosa
Tegastes paulipesPocillopora verrucosa
Xarifia comataPocillopora verrucosa
Xarifia gibberulaPocillopora verrucosa
Xarifia imparilisPocillopora verrucosa
Xarifia obesaPocillopora verrucosa
Xarifia serrataPocillopora verrucosa
Xarifia tentaPocillopora verrucosa
Panjakus bidentisPocillopora verrucosa
Monomolgus unihastatusPorites (andrewsi?)
Monomolgus unihastatusPorites (nigrescens?)
Xarifia longaPorites latistella
Euryte verecundaPorites lobata
Hemicyclops regalisPorites lobata
Monomolgus torulusPorites lobata
Kombia incrassataPorites lobata
Orstomella yaliuensisPorites lutea
Xarifia speciesPorites lutea
Kombia curvataPorites lutea
Kombia imminensPorites monticulosa
Kombia angulataPorites somaliensis
Kombia avitusPorites sp.
Monomolgus baculigeresPorites nigrescens
Monomolgus psammocoraePsammocora sp.
Kombia angulataPsammocora sp.
Xarifia diminutaPsammocora contigua
Xarifia imitansPsammocora contigua
Odontomolgus actinophorusPsammocora contigua
Numboa porosaPsammocora contigua
Odontomolgus rhadinusPsammocora contigua
Xarifia formosaPsammocora digitata
Xarifia imitansPsammocora digitata
Dumbeana undulatipesPsammocora logianensis
Emunoa prokntaPsammocora logianensis
Lipochaetes extrusisPsammocora logianensis
Odontomolgus exilipesPsammocora samoensis
Odontomolgus geminusPsammocora samoensis
Xarifia diminutaPsammocora sp.
Xarifia diminutaPsammocora sp. cf. contigua
Numboa porosaPsammocora togianensis
Xarifia simplexScapophyllia cylindrica
Xarifia reductaSeriatopora caliendrum
Xarifia eminulaSeriatopora hystrix
Xarifia levisSeriatopora hystrix
Xarifia obesaSeriatopora hystrix
Xarifia reductaSeriatopora hystrix
Xarifia umbonataSeriatopora hystrix
Xarifia varialabrataSeriatopora hystrix
Anchiomolgus tenuipesSeriatopora hystrix
Anchimolgus noumensisSeriatopora hystrix
Xarifia reductaSeriatopora octoptera
Xarifia reductaSeriatopora sp.
Parategastes conexusStereonephthya ulicoides
Xarifia decorataStylophora mordax
Xarifia lissaStylophora mordax
Tegastes georgeiStylophora pistillata
Xarifia decorataStylophora pistillata
Xarifia dissonaStylophora pistillata
Xarifia lissaStylophora pistillata
Xarifia obesaStylophora pistillata
Xarifia sectilisStylophora pistillata
Xarifia obesaStylophora pistillata var. palmata
Xarifia decorataStylophora sp.
Xarifia lissaStylophora sp.
Xarifia speciesStylophora sp.
Xarifia serrataStylophora subseriata
Xarifia insolitaTubastrea aurea
Xarifia insolitaTubastrea aurea
Xarifia speciesTubastrea sp.
Xarifia laceransTurbinaria danae
Xarifia unicataTurbinaria danae
Xarifia hamataTurbinaria sp. (T. elegans?)
Wedanus inconstansGoniopora minor

References

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Category:
  Advanced Aquarist
Dana Riddle
About

 Dana Riddle

  (120 articles)

I have been an aquarist since 1964 and a reef hobbyist since the mid-1980’s. I am the owner of a small laboratory (Riddle Aquatic Laboratories) that specializes in investigation of interactions between light and water motion & photosynthetic organisms (especially corals). The results of this research, resulting in almost 250 articles, have been published in Advanced Aquarist Online, Aquarium Frontiers, Koralle, Freshwater and Marine Aquarium, The Breeders’ Registry, Aquarium Fish, Marine Fish Monthly and others. My first article was published in a 1984 SeaScope and relayed my experiences with a refugium – an idea that would catch fire about a decade later. I have had the honor of making over 60 presentations to various groups, including national conferences such as the Marine Aquarium Conference of North America (MACNA) International Marine Aquarium Conference (IMAC), PetsFestival (Italy), regional conferences, and local clubs. I received the Marine Aquarium Society of North America (MASNA) Aquarist of the Year Award in 2011 at the MACNA conference in Des Moines.

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