VIDEO – ORA’s spawning pair of Amphiprion leucokranos ORA has shared this amazing time-lapse video documenting the third spawn of their Amphiprion leucokranos, the Whitebonnet Clownfish. This is a rare “species” of clownfish that is actually thought to be a rarely occurring natural hybrid, possibly the result of hybrid mating between A. chrysopterus and A. sandaracinos. Some reports and observations support this theory, while other observations suggest that even if a hybrid, they may breed relatively true. This particular pair has a rather long history behind it; check out ORA’s “Fed Ex Lost and Found” story of how these fish made the journey from New Jersey to Florida. We assume that ORA will be successful rearing the eggs from these fish, and hopefully this elusive variant will become more accessible to aquarists in the near future. When? Watch the video to the end to find out. Video Credits: ORA

CORAL January/February 2014 Preview

CORAL Magazine Volume 11, Number 1 Launching into 2014 and its 11th year of publishing, CORAL Magazine will take a fresh look a Seahorses with cutting edge secrets to their successful aquarium husbandry, feeding, and breeding, a species guide to the best (and worst species for captive systems), and an updated report on their status in the wild. CORAL January/February 2014 Cover. Click to enlarge. The availability of big, vibrantly colored and fascinating seahorses from captive-bred stocks has never been better, and improved foods and husbandry guides bring successful seahorse keeping within the reach of many more marine hobbyists. Seahorses also graced the first issue of CORAL, Volume 1, Number 1, long out of print and the most highly sought-after back issue of the magazine. This issue is a response to thousands of requests to revisit the subject of seahorses with updated advice and all-new images. Other issue highlights coming: • Gnarly Nematocysts: Invertebrate zoologist Dr. Ron Shimek reveals the astonishing powers and speeds of the microscopic stinging cells found in corals, sea anemones, and other members of the Phylum Cnidaria. Essential reading for every reef aquarist. • The Macroalgae Reef: An eye-opening look at unconventional reef aquariums aquascaped with  beautiful macroalgae species, including a guide on how to balance a mix of corals and a choice of the best red and green marine plants. • Tamarin Wrasses: Once considered highly challenging to keep, the interesting and very appealing wrasses of the genus Anampses are becoming easier to maintain as experienced aquarists learn the tricks of acclimating and feeding them. Scott Michael offers an expert introduction this reef-safe group of labrids. • Donald Duck Shrimp: Profile of the highly unusual Long Snout, Plume or Donald Duck Shrimp, Leander plumosus, sure be added to many reefkeepers’ must-have lists of colorful invertebrates. • Playing With Fire: The First Captive-Breeding of the Flame Pipefish. Jim Welsh reports on his success with the beautiful Hawaiian endemic Dunkerocampus baldwinii, revealing many useful lessons for would-be breeders of other marine rarities. Deadline for materials to be included in this issue: December 10th.  The issue has an on-sale date of January 7, 2014. The print edition of CORAL in English is  distributed in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, South Africa, France, India, the Netherlands, Malta, and elsewhere. The Digital Edition is read in more than 100 countries worldwide. To find a local or regional dealer who offers CORAL Magazine, visit our current Source Directory. CORAL is published bimonthly by Reef to Rainforest Media, LLC in Shelburne, Vermont, in partnership with Natur und Tier –Verlag GmbH and Matthias Schmidt Publishing, Muenster, Germany, Founding Editor: Daniel Knop English Edition Editor & Publisher: James M. Lawrence Cover Images Hippocampus reidi: Jorg Background The Banggai Cardinalfish will be published by Reef to Rainforest Media, LLC and exclusively distributed by Two Little Fishies. On sale date: August 27, 2013.

Victorian Parlor Aquarium – Coldwater Marine Tank Video

Print of a coldwater marine aquarium from Philip Henry Gosse’s 1855 book, A Handbook to the Marine Aquarium The Horniman Museum’s Victorian Parlor Tank features coldwater marinelife native to the United Kingdom. It’s a modern day riff on the legendary works of British naturalist and marine biologist Philip Henry Gosse, who is credited as inventing the word “aquarium” to replace the phrase “aquatic vivarium”.  Unlike Gosse in the 1800s, this modern tank features a remote life support system with nothing but the best to ensure a stable, healthy environment. This video from the Manchester Museum’s Youtube channel gives you a quick overview and behind the scenes look at what it takes to bring antiquity back to life. Philip Henry Gosse’s 1855 book, A Handbook to the Marine Aquarium, is available to read online in a myriad formats including downloadable pdfs.  While it’s not quite like owning the real thing, it’s a fascinating glimpse into our past. Video Credit – The Manchester Museum Thanks to Steve Waldron for bringing this to our attention.

Net Collectors at Work in Bali Published on Jun 11, 2013 Short video documentary of sustainable fish collection for the aquarium trade in North Bali, Indonesia. Some fishers there have been trained in non-destructive collection methods. CREDITS: Frank Schmidt | SAIA Sustainable Aquarium Industry Association (Europe)

Brittle Stars: White Wedding

By Daniel Knop Web Bonus Content from the September/October 2013 Issue of CORAL Magazine Additional Bonus Brittle Star Articles Page 30 top Brittle stars scurry to the surface. Page 30 bottom Brittle stars’ arms intertwined in a dense network. Page 31 top left The crowded animals compete for the highest spot, and some specimens even climb out of the water. Page 31 bottom Thick white clouds of sperm exit from the genital slits. Page 32 top left This is a typical posture: the oral disc is raised to squeeze the sperm out through the genital slits. Page 32 bottom left Others join in from near the water’s surface. Page 32 right In contrast lighting, the five- or six-armed stars exhibit a white comet tail—reminiscent of a “white wedding.” TEXT Spider-like, they emerged from all cracks and crevices. It looked almost like an alien invasion in a science fiction movie. Countless arms waved through the water, probed the environment, and attached themselves to rocks to pull themselves up. Each individual wanted to be first, to find the best place. The urge of a brittle star to climb—from the rock structure, up the aquarium glass, to the surface—is so powerful that some specimens came out of the water, standing on the bodies of their fellows. With almost blind zeal, half a hundred of these echinoderms assembled, as if following a secret command. However, it was not blind obedience or fear that drove them, but the irrepressible wish to reproduce: a brittle star wedding was imminent! Unlike other invertebrates that mate and exchange their genetic material directly, free spawners must synchronize their germ cell release. Therefore, they need a trigger that sets in motion the complex reproductive process. For these brittle stars, often referred to as Ophiocoma pumila in the hobby, that trigger is a sudden change in the environment—in this case a partial water change. As soon as the fresh sea water had flowed into the aquarium and mixed with the old water, the first arms stretched out from under the rocks. Within moments the aquarium, which had shown no sign of a brittle star before the water change, was teeming with them. These animals normally hide during the day and come out at to scavenge at night, but now they suddenly moved out into the open, despite all the dangers, to comply with their biological directive: reproduction. While most brittle star species are dioecious, some are hermaphroditic. Some free-spawning hermaphroditic species exclusively release sperm, while the oocytes remain in the body and are fertilized by the sperm of other individuals. The larvae of these hermaphroditic breeders remain in the respiratory cavities, or bursae, and mature there. On each side of the armpit on the oral side there are slit-shaped genital openings to the bursae—sac-like invaginations that are usually used for respiration. The animal reduces its volume by contracting the oral disc muscles to eject water and increases its volume by breathing in oxygen-rich water. The bursae also contain the gonads. Here, the sperm mature and are stored in a low-liquid form. During spawning, the gonads empty the sperm into the bursae, which serve as reservoirs. The germ cells are diluted with water, so the amount of sperm that finally emerges through the openings at the bases of the arms appears to be very great. In seemingly endless swells, this white mass exits through the genital slits, drips down, and forms elongated streaks in the open water. In contrast lighting, the five or six-armed stars look like comets with white tails. The sperm gradually mixes with the surrounding water to form a homogeneous, whitish mist that envelops everything. Within about an hour, most of the 50 brittle stars had released sperm. Some had remained near their hiding places in the typical spawning posture, with exposed oral discs. However, most of the small echinoderms had taken the more daring path, climbing up to the water’s surface in order to ensure that their own genes were spread as widely as possible. Some in top form unloaded huge masses into the 16-gallon (60-L) aquarium. The turbidity was significant, but none of the other aquarium animals developed signs of a lack of oxygen or other discomfort. The skimmer continued to work normally and showed no tendency to bubble over. A short time later, the tiny reef had returned to normal and there was no sign of the brittle stars’ “white wedding.”