Coral Reproduction, Part Three: Stony Coral Sexuality, Reproduction Modes, Puberty Size, Sex Ratios and Life Spans

The ultimate challenge of reefkeeping is the closing of our captive animals’ life cycles. A fortunate few have witnessed a coral spawning in their aquariums and might be interested in what it would take to raise coral planula larvae. On the other hand, there may be dedicated hobbyists interested in captive spawning of a certain species. It is the goal of this series to assist those hobbyists. This time, we’ll examine reproductive habits of stony corals. Information on the reproductive habits of over 300 stony coral species (in almost 100 genera) is presented. It is the most complete single-source reference currently available. This article will begin to offer information other factors (puberty age and size, life spans, etc.) and should begin to answer questions hobbyists might have.

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Figure 1. A female Sandalolitha robusta specimen spawns at the Waikiki Aquarium. Photo courtesy Dr. Bruce Carlson.

Witnessing coral reproduction, especially in an aquarium, is an exciting event. The first inclination is usually to find the camera and document the event. In the rush, some details may be (and often are) left unrecorded. Afterwards, many questions will inevitably arise. See the Figure 51 at the end of this article for suggestions on what to record.

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There are several reasons why we don’t hear of corals’ sexual spawning in captivity, and the most likely reason is that few, if any, aquarists have specially tried to address issues pertinent to success. Another reason is that spawning events are simply not observed. It is also a fact that only a handful of dedicated aquarists have sufficiently researched requirements for captive breeding.

The goals of this third article on coral reproduction are simple. We’ll examine the information available on stony coral sexuality and reproductive habits. This, in turn, will allow us to decide how many corals we’ll likely need in order to have a pair (if necessary!). Sexual maturity is another issue. Unfortunately, we can not always judge the reproductive fitness of a coral simply by examining colony size – other factors are sometimes important (colony thickness is an important diagnostic tool in some small encrusting corals).

Be aware that benthic marine invertebrates as a group utilize almost every reproductive strategy imaginable, ranging from parthenogenesis (suggested by researchers to possibly occur in a few coral taxa) to other asexual means (including ‘popping’, ‘dripping’, ‘budding’, fragmentation, transverse fission, longitudal fission, stoloniferous growths, etc.) and, of course, sexual reproduction including broadcast spawning and brooding (both internally and externally). As usual, nature will continue to confound us as we realize that a particular coral species reproductive habit can, and often does, vary according to location and/or environmental conditions. However, this should not prevent us from reviewing reproduction data gathered from over 400 references (a complete reference list will appear at the end of this series).

To recap, our goals for this time are:

  1. Discuss tools to ID your stony coral to the species level.
  2. Understand its mode(s) of reproduction and with this information select the number and size of specimens to ensure a pair exists.
  3. Enable you to select an appropriate aquarium size. (Be aware that many corals’ size at puberty might make them much too large for some home aquaria.)

Before continuing, perhaps a review is in order of terminology we’ll use.

Glossary

Brooding or Brooder – Brooding
Where fertilized eggs are held internally (or sometimes on the surface of a parent colony) and are released as planula larvae. Brooder: A coral that uses the brooding reproductive process.
Fecundity
Fertility; ability to produce abundantly.
Gonochoric
Possessing distinct male and female colonies where offspring are a result of fusion of gametes. Also referred to as dioecious, or unisexual. Gonochorism occurs in ~25% of coral species examined (Richmond, 1997).
Hermaphroditic
Possessing both male and female reproductive organs, sometimes referred to as monoecious. Self-fertilization (also called ‘selfing’) is an uncommon hermaphroditic trait among corals.
Oocyte
An immature egg (ovum).
Parthenogenesis
Development of a new individual from an unfertilized egg. This results in a female clone and is thought to occur in many invertebrates (including soft corals, gorgonians and possibly stony corals) and some vertebrates.
Planula larvae
The free-swimming, ciliated stage of coral larvae.
Polyspermy
Where more than one sperm fertilizes an ovum.
Protandrous hermaphrodite
Where male sex organs mature before those of the female.
Protogynous
(proto=first; gynous = female) – Where female sex organs mature before those of the male.
Self-fertilization or ‘Selfing’
Where gametes from a single parent colony are sufficient for successful reproduction. Relatively uncommon.

An Initial Recommendation

Unless you’ve witnessed a spawning of a particular coral species within your aquarium and want to investigate further, it is probably best to choose a coral that utilizes the brooding strategy. There are many advantages:

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  1. Brooding coral species are generally smaller in size than their broadcasting counterparts.
  2. Planula larvae from brooders are relatively mature upon release and have the advantage of size.
  3. Some hermaphroditic brooders do not broadcast gametes. This lessens the chance of the aquarium’s life support system suffering catastrophic failure.
  4. Brooded larvae sometimes contain zooxanthellae upon release from the parent colony, and the larvae do not have to obtain them from the surrounding environment.

Suspected Parthenogenesis

Parthenogenesis (definition above) is known to occur in a few invertebrates and even some vertebrates. It is suspected to occur in these stony corals:

  • Pocillopora damicornis (Permata et al., 2000)
  • Porites lobata (Fadllalah, 1983)
  • Porites lutea (Fadllalah, 1983)
  • Fungia scutaria (Krupp, 1983)

Self-fertilization (‘selfing’)

  • Acropora (Isopora) brueggemanni (Okubo et al., 2007)
  • Acropora tenuis (Heyward and Babcock, 1986)
  • Agaricia agaricites (Gleason et al., 2001).
  • Balanophyllia europaea (Goffredo et al., 2005).
  • Diploria strigosa (Hagman et al., 1998, in Alvarado et al., 2003)
  • Favia fragum (numerous references)
  • Goniastrea aspera (Heyward and Babcock, 1985)
  • Goniastrea favulus (Stoddart et al., 2004; Miller & Mundy, 2005)
  • Mycetophyllia species, suspected (Tirado, 2006)
  • Pocillopora damicornis (numerous references)
  • Porites astreoides (Gleason et al., 2001).
  • Seriatopora hystrix (Sherman, 2008)
  • Siderastrea radians (Neves et al., 2008)
  • Tubastraea coccinea (numerous references)

Gonochoric Brooding

Gonochoric brooding involves broadcast spawning by males and internal or external (surface) fertilization of oocytes, followed by internal or surface brooding:

  • Balanophyllia regia (Goffredo et al., 2005)
  • Dendrophyllia sp. (Babcock et al., 1986)
  • Goniopora queenslandiae (Yamazato et al., 1975, in Fadlallah, 1983)
  • Isophyllia dipsacea (Duerden, 1902, in Fadlallah, 1983)
  • Leptopsammia pruvoti (Kruzic et al., 2008)
  • Porites brighami (Richmond & Hunter, 1990)
  • Porites clavaria (Fadlallah, 1983)
  • Porites furcata (Soong, 1991)
  • Porites murrayensis (Neves, 1998)
  • Porites panamensis (Glynn et al., 2008)
  • Scolymia wellsi (suspected; Pitombo, 1992)
  • Tubastraea faulkerni (Babcock, 1986)

Brooders (stony corals)

  • Acrhelia horrescens (Kawaguti, 1941)
  • Acropora (Isopora) brueggemanni (see Richmond & Hunter, 1990)
  • Acropora corymbosa (Stimson, 1978)
  • Acropora (Isopora) cuneata (Wallace et al., 2007)
  • Acropora humilis (Stimson, 1978)
  • Acropora palawensis (see Richmond & Hunter, 1990)
  • Acropora (Isopora) palifera (Kojis, 1986)
  • Acropora striata (Stimson, 1978)
  • Acropora (Isopora) togianensis (Wallace et al., 2007)
  • Agaricia agaricites (Thornhill et al., 2006)
  • Alveopora daedalea (Schlesinger & Loya, 1985)
  • Balanophyllia europaea (Mezzomonaco et al., 2002)
  • Caryophyllia cyathus (Koch, 1897)
  • Cyphastrea ocellina (Stimson, 1978)
  • Dendrophyllia manni (see Richmond & Hunter, 1990)
  • Diploria strigosa (Hagman et al., 1998)
  • Euphyllia glabrescens (Kawaguti, 1941)
  • Favia fragum (Szmant, 1986)
  • Galaxea aspera (see Richmond & Hunter, 1990)
  • Goniopora queenslandiae (Loya, 1976)
  • Heliofungia actiniformis (see Richmond & Hunter, 1990)
  • Isophyllia dipsacea (Fadllalah, 1983)
  • Isopora togianensis (Wallace et al., 2007)
  • Madracis carmabi (Vermeij et al., 2004)
  • Madracis decactis (Vermeij et al., 2004)
  • Madracis formosa (Vermeij et al., 2004)
  • Madracis mirabilis (Vermeij et al., 2004)
  • Madracis pharensis (Vermeij et al., 2004)
  • Madracis senaria (Vermeij et al., 2004)
  • Manicina areolata (Johnson, 1992)
  • Mycetophyllia ferox (Babcock et al., 1986)
  • Pocillopora damicornis (Stimson, 1978)
  • Pocillopora elegans (Stimson, 1978)
  • Pocillopora verrucosa (Stimson, 1978)
  • Porites astreoides (Thornhill et al., 2006)
  • Porites panamensis (Glynn et al., 2008)
  • Scolymia wellsi (Pitombo, 1992)
  • Seriatopora caliendrum (Rinkevich & Loya, 1979)
  • Seriatopora hystrix (multiple references)
  • Siderastrea radians (Thornhill et al., 2006)
  • Tubastraea coccinea (Glynn et al., 2008)

Protandrous and Protogynous Hermaphrodites

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Protandrous Hermaphrodites

  • Flabellum rubrum (Moseley, 1881, in Fadlallah, 1983)
  • Goniastrea favulus (Kojis and Quinn, 1981)
  • Stylophora pistillata (Loya, 1976)

Protogynous Hermaphrodite

  • Siderastrea radians (Duerden, 1902, in Fadlallah, 1983)

Degree of Difficulty

As we have seen, aquarists have been successful in propagating a number of coral species. There are a number of factors involved in these successes, beginning with the skill and dedication of the aquarist. Seasoned veterans often report ‘easy’ asexual reproduction of species difficult to maintain long-term in captivity (some Goniopora species are good examples, while there are no reports of reproduction of easily maintained species).

With that said (and avoiding the issues and degrees of difficult in husbandry of some coral species), I will unilaterally list my perception of how challenging captive breeding of corals could be (beginning with the least difficult):

  1. Those capable of Parthenogenesis.
  2. Programmed fragmentation. This method is essentially left to the coral (it is genetically programmed to produce colonies in this manner), and fragments ‘drip’ or ‘pop’ away. The only thing required from the hobbyist is securing the cloned colony to a suitable substrate.
  3. Intentional fragmentation. This technique requires little from the hobbyist. Small fragments, or nubbins, or snipped, clipped, sliced or cut away from brood stock and attached to any of a number of substrates for grow-out.
  4. Brooding coral colonies capable of self-fertilization or ‘selfing’. Since ‘selfing’ is due to fertilization of an egg produced by a female by a sperm produced by a male within the same colony or sometimes the same polyp (hermaphroditic), these bisexual coral colonies can reproduce with only one colony present.
  5. Hermaphroditic brooding corals.
  6. Hermaphroditic broadcast spawners. In theory, only two coral colonies would be required to ensure cross-fertilization. However, many variables come into play such as sperm concentrations, polyspermy, egg buoyancy, impact of spawning on aquarium water quality, mode of zooxanthellae acquisition (vertical or horizontal), etc.
  7. Gonochoric broadcast spawners. In addition to the challenges presented by hermaphroditic broadcast spawners (above), we have to consider sex ratios (sometimes heavily skewed towards males) and the impact this has on sizing the aquarium.

Comments on Data Bases

While research this article, I found it best to maintain two data bases, and both are presented in this article. First, reproductive information about stony corals is listed in taxonomic order – by Family, Genus and Species along with comments, photographs, etc. After that, a quick reference sheet (along with the reference) presents reproductive information sans photos and comments (See Table 108).

A Note on Caribbean Corals

There have been rumors for a number of years that Caribbean corals would become legally available to hobbyists. After a number of false starts, this seems to be a reality. Rose corals (Manicina areolata) are available, and Siderastrea species may soon follow (Michael Janes, personnel communication. See www.aquatouch.com for details). Acropora palmata spats (grown from legally collected eggs and sperm from spawn slicks) are now in public aquaria. Perhaps this endangered species will someday be in home reef aquaria.

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It has been estimated that 60% of Caribbean corals are brooders; some are of relatively small size and may be available in the future. For these reason, I have included Caribbean species in this article.

The Aquarium

Almost every article written on home-based fish propagation begins with aquarium selection. So, it is seems reasonable to start there, right? “Let’s see – I’ve got that old 40 gallon breeder tank just gathering dust. I could use it…”

Whoa, cowboy! This line of reasoning has already dismissed the idea of logically thinking this project through from concept to reality. Fish breeders can choose the correct aquarium because they know much more about their fishes’ reproductive habits than coral farmers know about their corals’. It is fairly easy to quickly research size of adult fish and how to sex them. So, let’s start over.

Selecting Your Coral

Before you select your candidate coral, you should be able to identify it. There is a great deal of published research available (some of it presented in this series of articles), but utilization of this information depends upon correct identification of the coral. In some cases and with enough experience, this is simple. Some corals, such as the Elegance coral (Catalaphyllia jardineri), are not easily confused with any other species. Other corals will demonstrate a plasticity in shape and appearance according to environmental factors (water motion and lighting being two major influences), or naturally resemble very closely another coral species. For instance, there are several Acropora species that have pronounced corallites that appear to the casual viewer to be Acropora millepora, when in fact they are not.

Coral Identification Resources

Coral ID Software

Unless your stony coral identification skills are well-honed, I recommend the purchase of Veron’s Coral ID software. See the Media Review on this excellent resource for stony coral species identification here (http://www.advancedaquarist.com/2008/4/review ).

Internet Resources

For Acropora species, there is an excellent free resource on the internet (www.coralsee.org).

Veron’s Corals of the World is available for free at this website: http://whelk.aims.gov.au/coralsearch/coralid-search.php

Note this website is easier to use if you already know the coral ID to genus level. Then it is a matter of looking at each species. This can be a time consuming matter, and definitely is not as easy to reference as the print version.

If getting an ID to the genus level is acceptable, see CoralIdea (www.coralidea.com).

Books

There is no better book than Veron’s Corals of the World (2000). See the review of this book here (http://www.advancedaquarist.com/2008/4/review).

With a little practice and a few basic laboratory tools (magnifying glass, dissecting microscope) you should be able to get a reasonable idea as to the correct species (it helps if you know where the corals were collected – keep this in mind if you order through any of the major distributors. They know!).

Can I Use Fragments? Effect of Damage (Fragmentation) on Fecundity

It is generally believed that growth, reproduction and maintenance are processes competing for a limited amount of energy. The effects of breakage on a particular colony depend upon the amount of damage, colony size, energy reserves (such as lipids), environmental conditions and other factors. Limited resources could be devoted to repair traumatized areas. It is also possible that corals will re-absorb oocytes/eggs to obtain their high-calorie yolks for use in tissue repair.

There are several published papers on the subject. Zakai (1997) found that breakage of Pocillopora damicornis exceeding 25% of colony area reduced planulation by 63% while having no effect on the size (but obviously the number) of planulae. Smith and Hughes, 1999 examined the effects of breakage on Acropora intermedia, Acropora millepora, Acropora hyacinthus and found that fecundity was greatly reduced.

However, fragmentation does not necessarily reduce fecundity. Daughter colonies produced by programmed fragmentation by Diaseris distorta are sexually functional at sizes as small as 1 cm2 (roughly ½” square). See Part 1 of this series for photos of Diaseris.

In general, fragments can be used, but expect fecundity to be reduced or delayed.

Polyp Anatomy

The sexual organs of corals are usually on mesenterial filaments within the polyp. See Figure 2.

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Figure 2. Anatomy of a ‘typical’ stony coral polyp. Eggs (oocytes) and spermaries (male gonads) – either separately or together – can be found on mesenteries within sexually mature polyps.

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Figure 3. Modes of coral reproduction. ‘Selfing’ and ‘gonochoric brooding’ are relatively uncommon, while the two forms of broadcast spawnings are not.

Sexing Your Coral

After selecting your target species, we can continue. Unfortunately, you can’t just look at a coral and determine if it is male or female (unless you have the good fortune to witness it in the act of spawning, or have a small laboratory devoted to histology and can examine coral gonads). We’ll need to understand a couple of terms before we continue.

Spawning Ratios – How Many of Each Species in an Aquarium?

Most corals are hermaphroditic and only in relatively few cases do we have to concern ourselves with the issue of sex ratios. Sex ratios, when available, are included in the initial reports (below). Be aware that sex ratios are not fixed and can vary from location to location, but this is the best information we currently have.

Notes on Colony Size, Sexual Maturity and Life Span

Colony size and sexual maturity has been linked in some cases, but many factors other than colony area should be considered. In some cases, it is not the size of the colony but the thickness of the coral’s encrustation over the substrate that is the telling factor. In other cases, corals can asexually reproduce by fission, where a portion of the colony becomes isolated from the parent. In some cases, total mass of the colony (such as gorgonians) should be considered in lieu of colony height.

Generally, corals are a long-lived bunch and it is not uncommon to hear reports of corals believed to be hundreds of years of age. However, local patterns (number of storms, temperature, anthropogenic impacts, etc.) can limit survival rates.

On the other hand, brooding corals tend to have relatively brief lives. They mature at an earlier age and smaller size. They produce fewer young, but these tend to be well developed with a higher chance of survival. In some cases, brooders are opportunistic colonizers.

We’ll now begin our review of stony coral reproductive habits. They are listed by in alphabetical order by Family, followed by Genus (also in alphabetical order). Information on species is presented in any of the Tables and some of the Figures.

For those wanting a quick reference, see the end of this article for Table 108 – The Quick and Easy Reference. There, corals are listed alphabetically by Genus.

Family Acroporidae

Genus Acropora (Staghorn and Antler Corals)

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Figure 4. Acropora species are easily propagated via intentional fragmentation by hobbyists, but there are reports of sexual spawning in aquaria. Photo by the author.

Table 1. Sexuality and reproductive Modes – Acropora species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Acropora aculeusHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora acuminataBroadcast
Acropora anthocerisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora asperaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora austeraHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora carolinianaBroadcast
Acropora cerealisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora cervicornisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora clathrataHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora corymbosaHermaphroditicBrooder
Acropora cytheriaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora danaiHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora delicatulaPossibly sterile
Acropora delicatulaSee Acropora selagoBroadcast
Acropora digitiferaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora dilitataHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora divaricataHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora doneiHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora elseyiBroadcast
Acropora eurystomaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora exquisitaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora floridaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora formosaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora gemmiferaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora glauca?Broadcast
Acropora grandisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora grandulosaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora hemprichiiHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora horridaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora humilisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora humilis?Brooder
Acropora hyacinthusHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora hystrixHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora intermedaBroadcast
Acropora irregularisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora jacquelineaeBroadcast
Acropora kimbeensis
Acropora “kosurini-like”Broadcast
Acropora latistellaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora lianaeBroadcast
Acropora listeriBroadcast
Acropora longicyathusHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora loripesHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora lutkeniHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora microcladosHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora microphthalmaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora milleporaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora monticulosaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora muricataHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora nanaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora nastuaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora nobilisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora ocellataHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora palawensis?Brooder
Acropora palmataHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora palmeraeBroadcast
Acropora papillareBroadcast
Acropora plumosaBroadcast
Acropora polystomaBroadcast
Acropora pulchraHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora robustaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora samoensisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora sarmentosaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora scandensHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora secaleHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora selagoHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora smithiHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora solitaryensisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora spathulataBroadcast
Acropora spiciferaBroadcast
Acropora squarrosaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora striata?Brooder
Acropora subulataBroadcast
Acropora surculosaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora tenuisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora tortuosaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora valenciennesiHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora validaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora variabilisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora vaughaniBroadcast
Acropora verweyiHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acropora willisaeBroadcast
Acropora yongeiHermaphroditicBroadcast

Puberty Age for Acropora Species

Wallace (1985) estimates Acropora granulosa, A. hyacinthus, A. loripes and A. valida first spawn when they are 4-5 years of age. See Table 2 for more information.

Table 2
TaxaPuberty SizeAgeReference
Acropora spp.>20cmGuest et al., 2005
Acropora spp.3 yearsHarrison & Wallace, 1990

Subgenus Isopora

Some controversy exists over ‘subgenus’ status of Isopora (some feel it should be elevated to genus status), but I’ll present information as subgenus -as it is listed in the references – until this matter is resolved.

Table 3. Sexuality and reproductive Modes – Subgenus Isopora species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Acropora (Isopora) brueggemanniHermaphroditicBrooder
Acropora (Isopora) cuneataHermaphroditicBrooder
Acropora (Isopora) paliferaHermaphroditicBrooder
Acropora (Isopora) togianensisHermaphroditicBrooder

Genus Anacropora

Table 4. Sexuality and reproductive Modes – Anacropora species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Anacropora matthaiBroadcast

Genus Astreopora

Table 5. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes – Astreopora species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Astreopora gracilisBroadcast
Astreopora listeriBroadcast
Astreopora myriophthalmaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Astreopora randalliHermaphroditicBroadcast

Genus Montipora

Montipora species are very popular among reef hobbyists and for good reason. As a group, they are hardy and can grow quickly. In addition, some species contain colorful fluorescent and chromoprotein pigments (see Figure 5).

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Figure 5. The fluorescence of Montipora danae. Photo by the author.

Table 6. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes – Montipora species. Note that M. dilitata, M. flabellate and M. patula are endemic to Hawaii, thus restricting their distribution within the pet trade.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Montipora aequituberculataHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora altaseptaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora cactusHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora capitataHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora crassituberculataHermaphroditic
Montipora digitataHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora dilatataHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora efflorescensHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora effusaBroadcast
Montipora erythraeaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora eydouxiHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora faveolataHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora flabellataHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora floweriHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora foliosaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora hispidaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora informisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora monasteriataHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora patulaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora peltiformisBroadcast
Montipora ramosaBroadcast
Montipora samarensisHermaphroditic
Montipora spumosaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora studeriHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora tuberculosaBroadcast
Montipora turgescensHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora turtlenesisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora venosaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora verrilliHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montipora verrucosaHermaphroditicBroadcast

Puberty Size of Montipora Specimens

Bassim (1997) reports that Montipora verrucosa (now M. capitata) colonies are sexually mature when they are 18 cm (7.2″) on the longest axis.

Family Agariciidae

Members of Agariciidae are a mixed bag, reproductively speaking (Veron, 1986) – Agaricia species are brooders, while Pavona species are broadcast spawners. We don’t have enough information on other genera to make generalizations. Unfortunately, there is presently a ban on collection of Agaricia species, but Pachyseris and Pavona specimens are common in reef aquaria.

Genus Agaricia(Lettuce Leaf Corals)

Table 7. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes – Agaricia species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Agaricia agaricitesHermaphroditicBrooder
Agaricia crassa?Brooder
Agaricia fragilis?Brooder
Agaricia grahame?Brooder
Agaricia humilisHermaphroditicBrooder
Agaricia lamarcki?Brooder
Agaricia purpureaHermaphroditicBrooder
Agaricia tenufolia?Brooder
Agaricia undata?Brooder

Puberty Size of Agaricia humilis

Agaricia species are found only in the Caribbean (Veron, 1986). As far as we know, all Agaricia species are hermaphroditic brooders. Agaricia humilis specimens are sexually mature when they are ~28mm in diameter (van Moorsel, 1983). A. humilis is known to planulate year round. See Figure 6 for details on adult colony sizes.

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Figure 6. Diameters of adult Agaricia species (Van Moorsel, 1981).

Genus Coeloseris

No information on reproductive habits available.

Genus Gardineroseris

Table 8. Sexuality of Gardineroseris planulata.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Gardineroseris planulataHermaphroditic

Genus Helioseris

Table 9. Reproductive Mode of Helioseris cucullata.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Helioseris cucullataBrooder

Genus Leptoseris (Ridge Corals)

No information on reproductive habits available.

Genus Pachyseris

Table 10. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes of Pachyseris species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Pachyseris rugosaGonochoricBroadcast
Pachyseris speciosaGonochoricBroadcast

Genus Pavona (Pork Chop or Corrugated Corals)

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Figure 7. Pavona varians, from Hawaii. Photo by the author.

Table 11. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes of Pavona species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Pavona cactusGonochoric?
Pavona duerdeniGonochoricBroadcast
Pavona explanataGonochoric (?)
Pavona giganteaGonochoricBroadcast
Pavona variansGonochoricBroadcast

Family Astrocoeniidae

Genus Madracis

Madracis species are cosmopolitan – they are found in the Pacific (including Hawaii), Atlantic and Mediterranean.

Table 12. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes of Madracis species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Madracis carmabiHermaphroditicBrooder
Madracis decactisHermaphroditicBrooder
Madracis formosaHermaphroditicBrooder
Madracis mirabilisHermaphroditicBrooder
Madracis pharensisHermaphroditicBrooder
Madracis senariaHermaphroditicBrooder

Genus Palauastrea

Biologists seem to have overlooked this coral (it strongly resembles the common Porites cylindrica) and I have been unable to locate any information concerning its reproductive habits.

Genus Stephanocoenia

Table 13. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes of Stephanocoenia species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Stephanocoenia interceptaGonochoricBroadcast
Stephanocoenia micheliniGonochoricBroadcast

Genus Stylocoeniella

Table 14. Sexuality of a Stylocoeniella species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Stylocoeniella sp.Gonochoric

Family Caryophylliidae

Genus Heterocyathus

A zooxanthellate coral (Veron, 2000). No information is available about reproductive habits.

Genus Caryophyllia

Table 15. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes of Caryophyllia species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Caryophyllia ambrosa (deep water)Hermaphroditic
Caryophyllia cornuformis (deep water)Hermaphroditic
Caryophyllia cyathus?Brooder
Caryophyllia sequenzae (deep water)Hermaphroditic
Caryophyllia smithiGonochoricBroadcast

Genus Goniocorella

Table 16. Sexuality of a Goniocorella species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Goniocorella dumosa (deep water)Gonochoric

Genus Lophelia

Table 17. Sexuality of a Lophelia species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Lophelia pertusa (deep water)Gonochoric?

Family Dendrophylliidae

Some of the members of Dendrophylliidae are non-photosynthetic (they do not contain zooxanthellae). Since they are not autotrophic, some Balanophyllia, Dendrophyllia, Tubastraea and others require good water motion to deliver enough food, or require regular feedings. Those aquarists willing to meet the demands of these often brightly colored animals are often rewarded by their corals’ captive spawnings (usually in the form of planula larvae).

Genus Balanophyllia

Balanophyllia europea (a Mediterranean coral) contains zooxanthellae. Other Balanophyllia species do not.

Table 18. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes of Balanophyllia species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Balanophyllia elegansGonochoricBrooder
Balanophyllia europaeaHermaphroditicBrooder
Balanophyllia pruvotiGonochoric
Balanophyllia regiaGonochoric (?)Brooder
Balanophyllia sp.Brooder

Age of Puberty, Sex Ratio and Life Span for Balanophyllia species

Balanophyllia elegans colonies are capable of reproduction (brooding) at 1.5 years of age and have an expected life span of about 10 years (Gerrodette, 1981).

The gonochoric Balanophyllia pruvoti has a sex ratio of 1:1 (Radetic et al., 2002).

Genus Cladopsammia

Table 19. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes of Cladopsammia rolandi.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Cladopsammia rolandiHermaphroditicBrooder

Genus Dendrophyllia

Table 20. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes of a Dendrophyllia species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Dendrophyllia nigrescensSee Tubastraea spp.
Dendrophyllia sp.GonochoricBrooder

Genus Duncanopsammia

No information available on reproduction of the single member of this genus – Duncanopsammia axifuga (Veron, 1986).

Genus Enallopsammia

Table 21. Sexuality and Reproductive Mode of Enallopsammia rostrata.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Enallopsammia rostrata( deep water)Gonochoric

Genus Leptopsammia (Sunset Cup Coral)

Table 22. Sexuality and Reproductive Mode of Leptopsammia pruvoti.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Leptopsammia pruvotiGonochoricBrooder

Genus Heteropsammia

These small (25mm diameter) corals live at depths of ~25 meters or more and are free-living on soft bottoms (Veron, 2000). They may or may not contain zooxanthellae.

Table 23. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes of Heteropsammia species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Heteropsammia aequicostatusGonochoricBroadcast
Heteropsammia cochleaGonochoricBroadcast

Genus Rhizopsammia (Wellington’s Solitary Coral)

Table 24. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes of Rhizopsammia minuta.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Rhizopsammia minutaBrooder

Genus Tubastraea(Sun Corals)

image015.jpg

Figure 9. This Tubastraea colony originated from a planula larva that settled in an area of high flow – an overflow in a reef aquarium.

Tubastraea (or perhaps Dendrophyllia) specimens reproduce readily in an aquarium when conditions are right.

Fully developed planula larvae are released and the number of reports of this occurrence in aquaria rivals that of another brooding coral – Pocillopora damicornis.

Table 25. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes of Tubastraea species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Tubastraea aureaSee Tubastraea coccinea
Tubastraea coccineaHermaphroditicBrooder
Tubastraea faulkneriGonochoricBrooder

Puberty Size and Age of Tubastraea coccinea

Tubastraea coccinea (Glynn et al., 2008) Reproductive at 1.5 years, equating to colony size of ~5 cm in diameter, although Glynn et al., 2008 reports colonies can be reproductive when only 2 to 10 polyps are present (possibly due to stoloniferous growths). Paz-García et al. (2007) also reports reproduction in colonies only 5 cm in diameter (see Figure 11).

image018.jpg

Figure 10. These Tubastraea and Balanophyllia species are sexually mature at an early age.

Genus Turbinaria (Pagoda Corals)

Veron, 1986 states that Turbinaria species are all gonochoric broadcast spawners.

image019.jpg

Figure 11. The distinctive yellow-green coloration of Turbinaria reniformis is visible in this specimen. Photo by the author.

Table 26. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes of Turbinaria species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Turbinaria frondensGonochoric
Turbinaria mesenterinaBroadcast
Turbinaria reniformisGonochoricBroadcast
Turbinaria sp.GonochoricBroadcast

Family Euphyllidae

Family Euphylliidae contains some of the most popular aquarium corals including Euphyllia species (commonly called Anchor, Hammer, and Frogspawn corals) as well the Elegance coral (Catalaphyllia jardinei), Bubble and Grape corals (genera Plerogyra and Physogyra, respectively) and the Fox coral (Nemenzophyllia).

Euphylliidae corals, as a group, use various reproductive strategies as the following tables demonstrate.

Genus Catalaphyllia (Elegance Coral)

There is only one known Catalaphyllia species.

Table 27. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes of Catalaphyllia jardeni.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Catalaphyllia jardineiGonochoricBroadcast

Genus Euphyllia (Hammer, Anchor, and Frogspawn Corals)

image021.jpg

Figure 12. Euphyllia ancora, a gonochoric broadcast spawner. Photo by the author.

Euphyllia species are of separate sexes (gonochoric) and broadcast gametes, except for the hermaphroditic brooder E. glabrescens. There are reports of E. glabrescens planulating and successful settlements of larvae within aquaria (Mitch Carl, personal communication).

Table 28. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes of Euphyllia Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Euphyllia ancoraGonochoricBroadcast
Euphyllia divisaGonochoricBroadcast
Euphyllia glabrescensHermaphroditicBrooder
Euphyllia parancoraGonochoric?Broadcast
Euphyllia rugosaBrooder
image023.jpg

Figure 13. Release of planula larvae by a Euphyllia glabrescens at the Henry Doorly Zoo, Omaha, Nebraska. Photo courtesy Mitch Carl.

Maximum Colony Sizes of Brooding and Broadcasting Euphyllia Species

image026.jpg

Figure 14. Euphyllia glabrescens is a hermaphroditic brooder, and is smaller than its broadcasting relatives. Note that 100 cm diameter may not be the largest colony size, it is the largest category listed by the researcher (Soong, 1993).

Genus Nemenzophyllia (The Fox Coral)

Some of the corals sold as Nemenzophyllia are likely Plerogyra discus. Nemenzophyllia is often listed as rare, and no information is available on its reproductive habits.

image027.jpg

Figure 15. Nemenzophyllia turbida or Plerogyra discus? Only its taxonomist knows for sure. Photo by the author.

Genus Physogyra (Grape Coral)

The Grape coral is commonly seen in reef aquaria. It is a gonochoric, broadcast spawner.

Table 29. Sexuality and Reproductive Mode of Physogyra lichtensteini.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Physogyra lichtensteiniGonochoricBroadcast

GenusPlerogyra (Bubble Coral)

The Bubble coral is another popular reef aquarium inhabitant. It is probably gonochoric, and definitely a broadcast spawner.

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Figure 16. Hobbyists have reported that Bubble Corals (Plerogyra sinuosa) are broadcast spawners. Photo courtesy of Steve Ruddy.

Table 30. Reproductive Mode of Plerogyra sinuosa.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Plerogyra sinuosaBroadcast

Genus Solenosmilia

Table 31. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes of Solensomilia variabilis.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Solensomilia variabilisGonochoricBroadcast (?)

Family Faviidae

Genus Astreosmilia

Limited to the western Indian Ocean (Veron, 1986), few researchers have paid much attention to these corals, and no information on spawning habits is available.

Genus Australogyra

Table 32. Sexuality and Reproductive Mode of Australogyra zelli.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Australogyra zelliHermaphroditicBroadcast

Genus Barabattoia

Table 33. Sexuality and Reproductive Mode of Barabattoia amicorum.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Barabattoia amicorumHermaphroditicBroadcast

Genus Caulastrea (Candy Cane Corals)

Table 34. Sexuality and Reproductive Mode of Caulastrea furcata.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Caulastrea furcataHermaphroditicBroadcast

Genus Cladocora (Tube Corals)

Cladocora specimens are often found on Florida live rock but their patchy spots or clusters of small polyps are not particularly spectacular. Some do not possess zooxanthellae making their small tentacles colorless. Their ‘tubes’ are ~1/8″ in diameter.

Table 35. Sexuality and Reproductive Mode of Cladocora caespitosa.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Cladocora caespitosaHermaphroditicBroadcast

Genus Colpophyllia(Grooved Brain Coral)

This genus is found only in the Atlantic (Veron, 1986).

image031.jpg

Figure 17. Colpophyllia species. Photo courtesy Jake Adams and www.coralidea.com

Table 36. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes of Colpophyllia species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Colpophyllia amaranthusBroadcast
Colpophyllia breviseralisBroadcast
Colpophyllia natansHermaphroditicBroadcast

Genus Cyphastrea

Table 37. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes of Cyphastrea species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Cyphastrea chalcidicumHermaphroditicBroadcast
Cyphastrea microphthalmaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Cyphastrea ocellinaHermaphroditicBrooder
Cyphastrea serailaHermaphroditicBroadcast

Maximum Colony Sizes of Various Cyphastrea Species

Information on maximum colony sizes of various Cyphastrea confirms once again that brooding corals are smaller in size than their broadcasting relatives. See Figure 18.

image034.jpg

Figure 18. The brooder Cyphastrea ocellina has a smaller adult colony size than the Cyphastrea species that are broadcast spawners.

Genus Diploastrea

Table 38. Sexuality and Reproductive Mode of Diploastrea heliopora.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Diploastrea helioporaGonochoricBroadcast

Genus Diploria (Brain Corals)

This genus is found only in the Atlantic (Veron, 1986), and it is possible that specimens could hitchhike in on legally collected live rock.

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Figure 19. Adventurer and reef hobbyist John Dawe watches a Diploria spawn at the Flower Garden Banks, Gulf of Mexico. Egg/sperm bundles are visible as white dots throughout the picture. Photo courtesy of Michael P. Janes.

Table 39. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes of Diploria species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Diploria clivosaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Diploria labyrinthiformisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Diploria labyrinthiformisHermaphroditicBrooder
Diploria strigosaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Diploria strigosaHermaphroditicBrooder

Sizes and Sexual Maturity of Diploria clivosa and D. strigosa

image038.jpg

Figure 20. Diploria clivosa is a hermaphroditic broadcast spawner.

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Figure 21. Diploria strigosa is a hermaphroditic brooder.

Table 40. Diploria Puberty Sizes and Ages
TaxaPuberty SizeAgeReference
Diploria clivosa>100 cm²7-9 yearsSoong, 1992
Diploria strigosa>100 cm²7-9 yearsSoong, 1992

Genus Echinopora

Table 41. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes of Echinopora species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Echinopora gemmaceaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Echinopora horridaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Echinopora lamellosaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Echinopora pacificusHermaphroditicBroadcast

Genus Erythrastrea

This genus’ distribution is limited to the Red Sea (Veron, 1986) and no information on its reproductive habits is available.

Genus Favia (Star Corals)

Favia corals have been a mainstay in the reef aquarium hobby for many years. There are scattered reports of reproduction in aquaria.

image041.jpg

Figure 22. A Favia specimen releases an egg or sperm bundle in the aquarium of master aquarist Tony Vargas. Photo courtesy of Tony Vargas. This Favia has been maintained in captivity since 2000, and is 8 inches in diameter. Spawning occurred in June 7, 2004 in the early morning, and the event lasted for ~1 hour. This coral had recently endured a move from New York to Florida.

Table 42. Sexuality and Reproductive Modes of Favia species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Favia bennettaeHermaphroditicBroadcast
Favia doreyensisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Favia favusHermaphroditicBroadcast
Favia favusGonochoricBroadcast
Favia favusHermaphroditicBroadcast
Favia fragumHermaphroditicBrooder
Favia helianthoidesHermaphroditicBroadcast
Favia laxaBroadcast
Favia lizardensisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Favia matthaiHermaphroditicBroadcast
Favia pallidaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Favia rotumanaBroadcast
Favia speciosaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Favia stelligeraHermaphroditicBroadcast
Favia veroniHermaphroditicBroadcast
Table 43. Size and maturity of several Favia species.
TaxaPuberty SizeAgeReference
Favia doryensis?8 yearsConnell, 1973
Favia favus~3.5 cm²4 yearsOren et al., 2001
Favia fragum2- 4 cm²1.5 – 2 yearsSoong, 1992

Notes on Favia Puberty Size and Age

  • Favia doryensis specimens are sexually mature at 8 years of age (Connell, 1974).
  • Favia fragum has reproduced in aquaria. It is a small coral (no more than 2″ in diameter and broods its young).
image044.jpg

Figure 23. Favia fragum is known to reproduce in public aquaria. It is a brooder, matures at a small size (~ 50mm in diameter) and can be very attractive. Unfortunately, it is an Atlantic coral and is not readily available to hobbyists.

image046.jpg

Figure 24. The trend continues… the brooding coral F. fragum is smaller than its broadcast spawning counterparts. Note that 100 cm diameter may not be the largest colony size, it is the largest category listed by the researcher (Soong, 1993).

Genus Favites

Table 44. Sexuality and reproduction modes of Favites species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Favites abditaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Favites bennettaeHermaphroditicBroadcast
Favites chinensisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Favites complanataHermaphroditicBroadcast
Favites flexuosaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Favites halicoraHermaphroditicBroadcast
Favites pentagonaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Favites russelliHermaphroditicBroadcast

Genus Goniastrea (Honeycomb Coral)

Table 45. Sexuality and reproduction modes of Goniastrea species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Goniastrea asperaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Goniastrea asperaHermaphroditicBrooder
Goniastrea australensisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Goniastrea edwardsiHermaphroditicBroadcast
Goniastrea favulusHermaphroditicBroadcast
Goniastrea favulusProtandrous Hermaphrodite
Goniastrea palauensisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Goniastrea pectinataHermaphroditicBroadcast
Goniastrea retiformisHermaphroditicBroadcast

Puberty Size and Age of Goniastrea Specimens

  • Goniastrea aspera – less than 3″in diameter have only a slim chance of containing gonads, and proportion of mature colonies increases with colony size (Babcock, 1984)
  • Goniastrea aspera and G. favulus reached reproductive age in about 5 years (Babcock, 1991).

Genus Leptastrea

Table 46. Sexuality and reproduction modes of Leptastrea species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Leptastrea bottaeGonochoricBroadcast
Leptastrea purpureaGonochoricBroadcast

Genus Leptoria

Table 47. Sexuality and reproduction mode of Leptoria phyria.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Leptoria phryiaHermaphroditicBroadcast

Genus Manicina(Common Atlantic Rose Coral)

These beautiful Caribbean corals are being legally reared and are beginning to find there way to market in the U.S. Their small size and reproductive habits make them an idea candidate for captive propagation efforts. See this website for details on obtaining Manicina specimens: www.aquatouch.com

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Figure 25. The Caribbean Rose Coral (Manicina areolata) is now legally available for purchase by hobbyists. Photo courtesy Jake Adams and www.coralidea.com

Table 48. Sexuality and reproduction mode of Manicina areolata.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Manicina areolataHermaphroditicBrooder

Comment on M. areolata Adult Size

Adult Manicina specimens are ~3 inches long.

Genus Montastrea (Boulder Coral)

Montastrea corals are found in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

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Figure 26. Montastrea cavernosa. Photo courtesy Jake Adams and www.coralidea.com

Table 49. Sexuality and reproduction modes of Montastrea species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Montastrea magnistellataHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montastrea annularisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montastrea annuligeraHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montastrea cavernosaGonochoricBroadcast
Montastrea curtaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montastrea faveolataHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montastrea franksiHermaphroditicBroadcast
Montastrea valenciennesiHermaphroditicBroadcast
image052.jpg

Figure 27. The Caribbean faviid Montastrea cavernosa has a sharply defined sexual maturity size.

Age of Puberty for Montastrea annularis

Szmant (1986) estimates the age of puberty for Montastrea annularis is 5 to 6 years.

Genus Moseleya

Table 50. Sexuality and reproduction modes of Moseleya latistelata.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Moseleya latistellataHermaphroditicBrooder

Genus Oulastrea (Zebra Coral)

Table 51. Sexuality and reproduction modes of Oulastrea crispa.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Oulastrea crispaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Oulastrea crispaHermaphroditicBrooder

Puberty Size of Oulastrea crispa

Colonies greater than 20mm in diameter are sexually mature (Lam, 2000).

Genus Oulophyllia

Table 52. Sexuality and reproduction modes of Oulophyllia species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Oulophyllia bennettaeHermaphroditicBroadcast
Oulophyllia crispaHermaphroditicBroadcast

Genus Parasimplastrea

There is only one species (Parasimplastrea sheppardi). It has a very limited distribution, and no information is available on its reproductive habits.

Genus Platygyra

Table 53. Sexuality and reproduction modes of Platygyra species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Platygyra contortaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Platygyra daedaleaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Platygyra lamellinaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Platygyra piniHermaphroditicBroadcast
Platygyra ryukuensisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Platygyra sinensisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Platygyra verweyiHermaphroditicBroadcast

Puberty Age of Platygyra sinensis

Platygyra sinensis reaches a reproductive state at ~5 years of age (Babcock, 1991).

Genus Plesiastrea

Table 54. Sexuality and reproduction modes of Plesiastrea verispora.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Plesiastrea verisporaBroadcast

Genus Solenastrea

Solenastrea is an Atlantic species (Veron, 1986).

Table 55. Reproduction modes of Solenastrea species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Solenastrea boumoniBroadcast
Solenastrea hyadesBroadcast

Family Flabelliidae

Genus Flabellum

Table 56. Sexuality of Flabellum species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Flabellum alabastrum (deep water)Gonochoric
Flabellum angulare (deep water)Gonochoric
Flabellum curvatum (deep water)Gonochoric
Flabellum impensum (deep water)Gonochoric
Flabellum japonicumGonochoric
Flabellum rubrumProtandrous Hermaphrodite
Flabellum rubrumHermaphroditic
Flabellum thouarsii (deep water)Gonochoric

Notes on Flabellum rubrum Sexuality and Size

Flabellum rubrum – small colonies (13-20mm) are males; larger colonies are hermaphroditic (Gardiner, 1902, in Fadlallah, 1983).

Genus Gardineria

Azooxanthellate. No information on reproduction is available.

Genus Monomyces

No information on reproduction is available.

Genus Placotrochus

No information on reproduction is available.

Family Fungiidae

image053.jpg

Figure 28. A female Fungia scutaria spawning at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, Oahu, Hawaii. Note the tiny orange eggs being released. Photo courtesy of Jake Adams.

As a rule, all Fungiids seen to be gonochoric with the exception of one report of Heliofungia actiniformis being a brooder.

Genus Cantharellus

This Fungiid has a wide geographical range, but is rarely seen. It sometimes lives attached to the substrate (Veron, 2000). No information is available on reproductive habits.

Genus Ctenactis

No information is available on reproductive habits.

Genus Cycloseris

YouTube has some interesting video clips showing a Cycloseris (tentative ID) broadcast spawning. It is tempting to state that Cycloseris, like other Fungiids, is a gonochoric broadcast spawner.

Genus Danafungia

No information is available on reproductive habits.

Genus Diaseris

Table 57. Sexuality and reproduction mode of Diaseris distorta.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Diaseris distortaGonochoricBroadcast
image056.jpg

Figure 29. Sex ratios of Diaseris distorta in Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, where there are 5 males to every female colony.

Puberty Size and Sex Ratios of Diaseris distorta

Diaseris distorta (Colley et al., 2000) – Satellite colonies possess sex organs when colony size is ~1 cm2, while colonies produced sexually do not reach puberty until they are of larger size . Male colonies outnumber females by a ratio of 5 to 1 (in Ecuador).

Genus Fungia (Mushroom Coral)

Table 58. Sexuality and Reproduction Modes of Fungia species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Fungia actiniformisSee Heliofungia actiniformis
Fungia concinnaGonochoricBroadcast
Fungia fungitesGonochoricBroadcast
Fungia granulosaGonochoricBroadcast
Fungia horridaBroadcast
Fungia paumotensisGonochoricBroadcast
Fungia repandaGonochoricBroadcast
Fungia scutariaGonochoricBroadcast
Fungia scutariaParthenogenic?
Fungia sp. (Okinawa)GonochoricBroadcast
image058.jpg

Figure 30. All Fungia species are gonochoric broadcast spawners. Sex ratios vary among species, and then even with environmental conditions. Based on information from Kramarsky-Winter and Loya (1998) and others.

Puberty Size, Age and Lifespan of Fungia Species

Fungia concinna and Fungia fungites are capable of reproduction at 4 years of age (equaling a size of ~6 cm in diameter; Harrison and Wallace, 1990). This information is in good agreement with that of Goffredo and Chadwick-Furman (2004) who report Fungia scutaria specimens are approximately 5 years of age when obtaining a diameter of 7 cm.

Further, these researchers report F. scutaria specimens are about 14 years old when they obtain a diameter of 22 cm. The estimated life span of F. scutaria is about 50 years.

Table 59. Size at puberty of various Fungiids.
TaxaPuberty SizeAgeReference
Fungia coccinea6 cm diameter4 yearsHarrison & Wallace, 1990
Fungia fungites6 cm diameter4 yearsHarrison & Wallace, 1990
Fungia grandulosa5.5 cm diameter?Kramarsky-Winter & Loya, 1998
Fungia scutaria (male)2.5 – 6 cm diameter?Kramarsky-Winter & Loya, 1998
Fungia scutaria (female)>9 cm diameter?Kramarsky-Winter & Loya, 1998
Heliofungia actiniformis8 cm diameter10 yearsConnell, 1973
image060.jpg

Figure 31. Fungiids can be reproductive over a broad range of sizes.

Genus Fungicyathus

This azooxanthellate coral can live at extreme depths – over 6,000 meters – the deepest of any coral (Veron, 2000). Needles to say, this coral is not likely to be found in your average reef aquarium!

Table 60. Sexuality of Fungicyathus species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Fungicyathus crispaGonochoric
Fungicyathus fragilisGonochoric
Fungicyathus marenzelleriGonochoric

Genus Halomitra

No information available.

Genus Heliofungia (Plate Coral)

Table 61. Sexuality and Reproduction Modes of Heliofungia actiniformis.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Heliofungia actiniformisHermaphroditic (?)Brooder
Heliofungia actiniformisGonochoricBroadcast

Heliofungia Puberty Size and Age

Heliofungia actiniformis is reproductive at 10 years of age with a corresponding diameter of 8cm (Connell, 1973).

Genus Herpetoglossa

Table 62. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Herpetoglossa simplex.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Herpetoglossa simplexGonochoricBroadcast

Genus Herpolitha

Table 63. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Herpolitha limax.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Herpolitha limaxGonochoricBroadcast

Genus Lithophyllon

No information available.

Genus Podabacia

Table 64. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Podabacia crustacea.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Podabacia crustaceaGonochoricBroadcast

Genus Polyphyllia

Table 65. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Polyphyllia talpina.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Polyphyllia talpinaGonochoricBroadcast

Genus Sandalolitha

Table 66. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Sandalolitha robusta.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Sandalolitha robustaGonochoricBroadcast

Genus Verilliofungia

No information available.

Genus Zoopilus

No information available.

Family Meandrinidae

This family has 4 genera found only in the Atlantic. For the purist, the Meandrinidae is sometimes spelled differently from the way it is listed in Veron’s Corals of the World (2000).

Genus Ctenella

No information available on the reproduction habits of the one known species (C. chagius) from the western Pacific. This coral has a limited distribution (Veron, 2000).

Genus Dendrogyra (Pillar Coral)

Only one known species (D. cylindrus), an uncommon coral from the Caribbean.

image061.jpg

Figure 32. This Dendrogyra is reproducing asexually via ‘budding’ but it is also a gonochoric broadcast spawner. Photo courtesy of Julian Sprung.

Table 67. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Dendrogyra cylindrus.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Dendrogyra cylindrusGonochoricBroadcast

Genus Dichocoenia (Caribbean Starlet Coral)

Dichocoenia stokesi has been shown to spawn in September and October of each year (Hoke et al., 2002).

Table 68. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Dichocoenia Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Dichocoenia stellarisBrooder
Dichocoenia stokesiGonochoric & HermaphroditicBroadcast

Genus Eusmilia(Flower Coral)

A beautiful Caribbean coral which makes it a rarity in captivity.

Table 69. Reproduction mode ofEusmilia fastigata.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Eusmilia fastigataBroadcast

Genus Gyrosmilia

Gyrosmilia has a relatively small geographical range and is found only in the West Indian Ocean & Red Sea. No information available on the one species known.

Genus Meandrina (Tan Brain Coral)

Table 70. Reproduction Mode of Two Meandrina Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Meandrina areolata?Brooder
Meandrina meandritesBrooder

Genus Montigyra

No information available on the one species known.

Family Merulinidae

Veron (1986) reports these corals are hermaphroditic broadcast spawners.

Genus Boninastrea

No specific information is available on reproductive habits.

Genus Hydnophora

Table 71. Sexuality and Reproduction Modes of Two Hydnophora Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Hydnophora exesaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Hydnophora rigidaHermaphroditicBroadcast

Genus Merulina

Table 72. Sexuality and Reproduction Modes of Two Merulina Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Merulina ampliataHermaphroditicBroadcast
Merulina scabriculaHermaphroditicBroadcast

Genus Paraclavarina

Paraclavarina specimens are occasionally seen in the trade. Although usually colored tan, their distinct shape makes them a worthwhile addition to a SPS tank. Table 61 uses the outdated name of Clavarina, per Babcock and Heyward’s 1986 description.

Table 73. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Paraclavarina (Clavarina) triangulis.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Clavarina triangularisHermaphroditicBroadcast

Genus Scapophyllia

Table 74. Reproduction Mode of a Scapophyllia Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Scapophyllia cylindricaHermaphroditicBroadcast

Family Micrabaciidae

Genus Stephanophyllia

Table 75. Reproduction Mode of a Stephanophyllia Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Stephanophyllia formosissimaBrooder

Family Mussidae

Genus Acanthastrea

Recent imports from Australia’s Great Barrier Reef have included a number of spectacular Acanthastrea specimens. Their fluorescent pigments are showcased in reef aquaria and, not surprisingly, are popular and command high prices – making them a good candidate for captive propagation efforts.

image063.jpg

Figure 33. Imagine a tank full of settled Acanthastrea ‘spats’. Photo courtesy of Steve Ruddy.

Table 76. Sexuality and Reproduction Modes of Acanthastrea Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Acanthastrea hillaeHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acanthastrea echinataHermaphroditicBroadcast
Acanthastrea lordhowensisHermaphroditicBroadcast

Genus Micromussa

Veron (2000) created this genus to distinguish corals containing certain skeletal details from those previously listed as Acanthastrea, and states that these corals are rare. His book lists 3 species. To my knowledge, there is spawning information on only one species.

image065.jpg

Figure 34. The reproductive habits of Micromussa species have only recently been described. Photo courtesy Jake Adams and www.coralidea.com

Table 77. Reproduction Mode of a Micromussa Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Micromussa amakuensisBroadcast

Genus Mussismilia

Table 78. Reproduction Mode of Mussismilia Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Mussismilia braziliensisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Mussismilia hartiiHermaphroditicBroadcast
Mussismilia hispidaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Mussismilia sp.Hermaphroditic

Genus Mussa(Flower Coral)

Table 79. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Mussa Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Mussa sp.Hermaphroditic
Mussa angulosaBrooder

Genus Isophyllia(Stalked Cactus Coral)

Table 80. Sexuality and Reproduction Modes of Isophyllia Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Isophyllia dipsaceaGonochoricBrooder (external)
Isophyllia sinuosaGonochoricBrooder
Isophyllia sp.Gonochoric (?)Broadcast

Isophyllia sinuosa Puberty/Adult Colony Size

Adult I. sinuosa specimens are about 6 inches in diameter.

Genus Isophyllastrea (Rough Star Coral)

Veron (2000) states this coral’s proper name as Isophyllia rigida, but I have listed it as the Coral Reef Task Force originally described it.

Table 81. Reproduction Mode of Isophyllastrea/Isophyllia rigida.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Isophyllastrea rigida?Brooder

Genus Mycetophyllia (Large Cactus Coral)

Table 82. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Mycetophyllia Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Mycetophyllia ailiciaeHermaphroditicBrooder
Mycetophyllia danaanaBrooder
Mycetophyllia feroxHermaphroditicBrooder
Mycetophyllia lamarckianaBrooder
Mycetophyllia reesiBrooder

Genus Australomussa

No information available.

Genus Blastomussa

No information available.

Genus Cynarina

Table 83. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Cynarina lacrymalis.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Cynarina lacrymalisHermaphroditicBroadcast

Genus Lobophyllia

Table 84. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Lobophyllia Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Lobophyllia corymbosaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Lobophyllia hemprichiiHermaphroditicBroadcast
Lobophyllia pachyseptaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Lobophyllia sp.Hermaphroditic

Genus Scolymia (Fungus Coral)

image067.jpg

Figure 35. A strikingly beautiful Scolymia specimen. Photo courtesy Jake Adams and www.coralidea.com

Table 85. Reproduction Mode of Scolymia Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Scolymia sp. (Atlantic)?Brooder
Scolymia cubensisSee Scolymia wellsi
Scolymia vitiensisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Scolymia wellsiHermaphroditicBrooder
Scolymia wellsiGonochoric (?)Brooder

Genus Symphyllia

Table 86. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Symphyllia Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Symphyllia radiansHermaphroditicBroadcast
Symphyllia rectaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Symphyllia sp.Hermaphroditic

Family Oculinidae

Genus Acrhelia

This genus was discontinued by Veron (2000), who considers Acrhelia horrescens to now be Galaxea horrescens. I include this information to avoid confusion.

It does not change the fact that Galaxea/Acrhelia horrescens is a brooder (Kawaguti, 1941).

Table 87. Reproduction Mode of Acrhelia horrescens.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Acrhelia horrescens?Brooder

Genus Galaxea (Galaxy Corals)

Table 88. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Galaxea Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Galaxea aspera?Brooder
Galaxea astreataHermaphroditicBroadcast
Galaxea fascicularisHermaphroditic, female sterileBroadcast
Galaxea fascicularisGonochoricBroadcast
Galaxea horrescensBrooder

Genus Neohelia

Table 89. Sexuality of Neohelia porcellania.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Neohelia porcellanaGonochoric (?)

Genus Oculina (Bush Corals or Ivory Tree Coral)

Table 90. Sexuality and Reproduction Modes of Oculina Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Oculina sp.Broadcast
Oculina varicosaGonochoricBroadcast
Oculina patagonicaGonochoricBroadcast

Oculina varicosa spawns in late summer and early fall. Planula larvae settle at about 21 days of age (Brooke et al., 2002).

Genus Madepora

Table 91. Sexuality of a Madrepora Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Madrepora oculata (deep water)Gonochoric?

Genus Schizoculina

No information available on reproductive habits.

Genus Simplastrea

No information available on reproductive habits.

Family Pectiniidae

All corals in Pectiniidae are hermaphroditic broadcast spawners (Veron, 1986).

Genus Echinomorpha

Contains one species, Echinomorpha (formerly Echinophyllia) nihihirai (Veron, 2000).

Genus Echinophyllia

Some Echinophyllia species are particularly colorful and command extreme prices. Unfortunately, observations of spawning within aquaria have not been made.

image069.jpg

Figure 36. An Echinophyllia species. Photo by the author.

Table 92. Sexuality and Reproduction Modes of Echinophyllia Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Echinophyllia asperaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Echinophyllia orpheensisHermaphroditicBroadcast

Genus Mycedium

Table 93. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of a Mycedium Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Mycedium elephantotusHermaphroditicBroadcast

Genus Oxypora

Table 94. Sexuality and Reproduction Modes of Two Oxypora Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Oxypora glabraHermaphroditicBroadcast
Oxypora laceraHermaphroditicBroadcast

Genus Pectinia

Table 95. Sexuality and Reproduction Modes of Pectinia Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Pectinia alcicornisHermaphroditicBroadcast
Pectinia lactucaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Pectinia paeoniaHermaphroditicBroadcast

Family Pocilloporidae

Family Pocilloporidae contains 3 genera – Pocillopora, Seriatopora and Stylophora.

Genus Pocillopora (Wart Corals)

image071.jpg

Figure 37. Pocillopora eydouxi is a hermaphroditic broadcast spawner. Kauai, Hawaii. Photo by the author.

Table 96. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Pocillopora Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Pocillopora bulbosaSee P. damicornisBrooder
Pocillopora brevicornisSee P. damicornis
Pocillopora caespitosaSee P. damicornisBrooder
Pocillopora damicornisHermaphroditicBrooder
Pocillopora damicornisParthenogenic?
Pocillopora damicornisBroadcast
Pocillopora damicornis Type YBrooder
Pocillopora damicornis Type BBrooder
Pocillopora elegans?Brooder
Pocillopora eydouxiHermaphroditicBroadcast
Pocillopora meandrinaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Pocillopora verrucosaHermaphroditicBroadcast
Pocillopora verrucosa?Broadcast
image073.jpg

Figure 38. In this photo by David Kearnes, the normally clear waters off Kailua-Kona, Hawaii become cloudy with gametes during the seasonal Pocillopora meandrina spawnings.

image075.jpg

Figure 39. Within hours, the water will swarm with billions of planula larvae. Only a few will survive long enough to settle. Photomicrograph by the author.

image078.jpg

Figure 40. Again, this figure demonstrates that a brooder (P. damicornis) is reproductive at a smaller size than the broadcast spawner (P. meandrina).

Puberty Sizes of Two Pocillopora Species

Pocillopora damicornis is probably the most researched species of any stony coral.

Jokiel (1997) states that Pocillopora damicornis at a size of 10 cm (~4″) diameter releases 220 planula larvae per month. Harrigan (1972) found P. damicornis as small as 5 cm in diameter can produce planulae (estimated to be 1-2 years old).

Ricmond (in Richmond and Hunter, 1990) states Pocillopora damicornis takes at least two years to mature. P. damicornis colonies in the eastern Pacific can live to at least 70 years of age (Richmond & Hunter, 1990).

During the 2008 Pocillopora meandrina mass spawning in Hawaii, the smallest colony observed spawning was ~6″ in diameter (personal observations), which is about 2″ less in diameter than the smallest mature colony observed by Stimson (1978).

Genus Seriatopora (Bird’s Nest Corals)

image079.jpg

Figure 41. The red morph of Seriatopora hystrix. It is a hermaphroditic brooder, making it a prime candidate for aquarium spawning, yet reports of reproduction in captivity are practically non-existent. Why? (This photo was taken during a recent visit to Salt Lake City. If this is your coral, please contact me and I’ll post a tardy photo credit).

Table 97. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Seriatopora Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Seriatopora caliendrumHermpahroditicBrooder
Seriatopora hystrixHermaphroditicBrooder

Genus Stylophora (Club Coral)

Table 98. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Stylophora Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Stylophora mordaxBrooder
Stylophora pistillataHermaphroditicBrooder
Stylophora pistillataProtandrous Hermaphrodite

Notes on Stylophora pistillata Sexuality

Stylophora pistillata is a male in its first year and then becomes hermaphroditic, capable of self-fertilization and brooding in its second year (Loya, 1976). Later, Rinkevich and Loya stated that Stylophora pistillata reaches puberty at 1.5 to 2 years of age.

image082.jpg

Figure 42. These two brooding corals mature relatively quickly.

Family Poritidae

Genus Alveopora

Table 99. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Alveopora Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Alveopora daedaleaHermaphroditicBrooder
Alveopora japonicaHermaphroditicBrooder

Genus Goniopora (Flower Pot Corals)

Table 100. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Goniopora Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Goniopora columnaGonochoricBroadcast
Goniopora dijboutiensisGonochoricBroadcast
Goniopora fruticosaPossibly sterile
Goniopora gigas?Broadcast
Goniopora lobataGonochoricBroadcast
Goniopora minorGonochoricBroadcast
Goniopora norfolkensisGonochoricBroadcast
Goniopora palauensisBroadcast
Goniopora queenslandiaeGonochoricBrooder
Goniopora savignyiGonochoricBroadcast
Goniopora sp.GonochoricBroadcast
Goniopora sp. 1GonochoricBroadcast
Goniopora tenuidensGonochoricBroadcast

Genus Porites (Lobe and Finger Corals)

image083.jpg

Figure 43. A Porites lutea, from a shallow tide pool in Keauhou, Hawaii. Photo by the author.

Table 101. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Porites Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Porites andrewsiGonochoricBroadcast
Porites annaeBroadcast
Porites astreoidesHermaphroditicBrooder
Porites astreoidesHermaphroditic & FemaleBrooder
Porites astreoidesHermaphrodite & Female/ MaleBrooder
Porites attenuataBrooder
Porites australensisGonochoricBroadcast
Porites branneriBrooder
Porites brighamiGonochoric or HermaphroditicBrooder
Porites clavariaGonochoricBrooder
Porites colonensisBrooder
Porites compressaGonochoricBroadcast
Porites cylindricaGonochoricBroadcast
Porites divaricataBrooder
Porites evermanniGonochoricBroadcast
Porites furcataGonochoricBrooder
Porites haddonisee Porites stephensoniBrooder
Porites heronensisBrooder
Porites lichenHermaphroditicBrooder
Porites lobataGonochoricBroadcast
Porites lobataParthenogenic?
Porites luteaGonochoricBroadcast
Porites luteaParthenogenic?
Porites murrayensisGonochoricBrooder
Porites panamensisGonochoricBrooder
Porites poritesGonochoricBrooder
Porites poritesHermaphroditic
Porites rusGonochoric?
Porites solidaGonochoricBroadcast
Porites stephensoni?Brooder
image086.jpg

Figure 44. Sex ratios of various Porites species.

image088.jpg

Figure 45. Brooders are in green, Broadcasters in orange. Note that adult size of brooders is always smaller that broadcasting species. Also note that 100 cm diameter may not be the largest possible colony size, it is the uppermost category listed by the researcher (Soong, 1993). For true maximum colony sizes of Porites lobata and P. lutea, see Figure 45. Note that P. brighami is endemic to Hawaii.

image090.jpg

Figure 46. True maximum colony size of various Porites species. Information from Doug Fenner, 2005.

image092.jpg

Figure 47. Size of adult colonies of the Atlantic coral Porites astreoides. It is a brooder.

Notes on Porites Puberty Size and Sex Ratios

Porites andrewsi: 2:1 male/female, with a small percentage (~4%) being hermaphroditic.

Porites astreoides: A Caribbean coral, and within specimens containing gonads – some do not!) are found in percentages of 48% hermaphroditic to 52% female, giving a ratio, of course, ~1 to 1 (Chornesky and Peters, 1987). McGuire (1998) states that Porites astreoides capable of reproduction at 70 cm2 (approx. 14″ square).

Porites lobata: Spawning ratios were 1:1 in Hawaii (Mate, 1997); ~1:1 at the Great Barrier Reef, Australia (Kojis and Quinn, 1981) and 1:1 in the eastern Pacific (but 14% of Costa Rican P. lobata colonies were hermaphroditic – Glynn et al., 1994).

Porites lutea: Roughly 1:1 at the Great Barrier Reef, Australia (Kojis and Quinn, 1981).

Harriot (1983) estimates Porites lutea reaches puberty at 4 years of age.

Porites murrayensis: Reproductive at 1.3 – 5.5 cm diameter (adult colonies are <20 cm in diameter) at Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (Kojis and Quinn, 1981)

Genus Poritipora

This genus, erected by Veron, 2000, has a limited distribution from the east coast of Africa and northeast to the Indian coast and nothing is known of its reproductive habits.

Genus Stylaraea

This genus contains but one species (S. punctata), and it is small (<15mm across). We could expect its reproductive size to be very small. It refers carbonate biofilms for settlement (Golbuu & Richmond, 2007). Information is available for S. punctata, but I lost the reference and am supremely disappointed that I cannot find that information in a stack of over 500 reference papers.

Subgenus Synaraea

Controversy about the validity of subgenus Synaraea exists (Veron 2000 lists Porites (Synaraea) rus as simply P. rus, but acknowledges the previous classification).

Table 102. Sexuality of Porites (SubgenusSynaraea) rus.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Porites rusGonochoric?

Family Rhizangiidae

Genus Astrangia

Table 103. Sexuality and Reproduction Modes of Astrangia Species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Astrangia danaeGonochoricBroadcast
Astrangia lajollaensisGonochoricBroadcast
Astrangia poculataSee A. danae

Genus Culicia

No information available on this corals’ reproductive habits.

Family Siderastreidae

Many studies have been conducted on Siderastrea species from the Atlantic, some of which is listed here.

Genus Anomastraea

No information available on this corals’ reproductive habits.

Genus Coscinaraea

Table 104. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Coscinarea columna.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Coscinarea columnaGonochoricBroadcast

Genus Horastrea

No information available on this coral’s reproductive habits.

Genus Psammocora

Table 105. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Psammocora species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Psammocora contiguaGonochoricBroadcast
Psammocora digitataGonochoricBroadcast
Psammocora stellata?Brooder

Genus Pseudosiderastrea

No reproductive information available.

Genus Siderastrea (Starlet Corals)

Legally-collected Caribbean Siderastrea colonies (S. siderea, S. stellata or S. radians) may be available in the future (Michael Janes, personal communication). S. radians is relatively small, and generally considered to be a brooder, making it an excellent candidate for captive propagation efforts.

Table 106. Sexuality and Reproduction Mode of Siderastrea species.
TaxonSexualityReproduction
Siderastrea radiansGonochoricBrooder
Siderastrea radiansHermaphroditicBrooder
Siderastrea radiansProtandrous Hermaphrodite
Siderastrea sidereaBrooder
Siderastrea sidereaGonochoricBroadcast
Siderastrea stellataBrooder
image094.jpg

Figure 48. Siderastrea sizes – note that 100 cm diameter may not be the largest colony size, it is the largest category (50-100 cm) listed by the researcher (Soong, 1993).

image096.jpg

Figure 49. Colony size and its relationship to sexual maturity of Siderastrea radians.

Sex Ratios of Siderastrea radians

Siderastrea radians is found in male/female ratios of 1:1. (Lazar, internet resource, date unknown).

image098.jpg

Figure 50. Males and females are found evenly in this case. It could be different in other areas due to any number of factors, but this has yet to be demonstrated for this coral species.

image100.jpg

Figure 51. Siderastrea species have been carefully studied by a number of researchers, resulting in information such as this.

Table 107. Puberty Size and Age Data for Siderastrea Species.
TaxaPuberty SizeAgeReference
Siderastrea radians2- 4 cm²1.5 – 2 yearsSoong, 1992
Siderastrea siderea>100 cm²7-9 yearsSoong, 1992

Comments on Siderastrea Reproduction and Longevity

Siderastrea radians is a protogynous hermaphrodite (Duerden, 1902, in Fadlallah, 1983).

Elahi and Edmunds (2007) report that Siderastrea siderea colonies can be at least 125 years old (based on a growth rate of 4mm (~1/6″) per year). Siderastrea siderea juveniles are less than 40mm in diameter, and mature colonies are 5.9 – 11.4 cm in diameter.

Family Trachyphylliidae

Genus Trachyphyllia

There are limited reports of this coral broadcast spawning in aquaria (Tyree, 1994).

In Closing

As a matter of convenience (mostly mine), I have chosen to publish the reference list at the close of this series. If you like a copy earlier, please email me (RiddleLabs@aol.com) and I’ll send this information in a Word document.

Next time, we’ll examine the reproduction habits of soft corals.

Acknowledgements

It would have been much easier to simply list the reproductive information of various stony corals. In fact, the initial draft of this article contained few photos. I felt this made the article a little too dry, so, I went, with hat in hand, to many sources asking for help – and thankfully a number of hobbyists and professional aquarists responded. Many thanks go to Dr. Bruce Carlson (once at the Waikiki Aquarium, but now at the Georgia Aquarium), Mitch (the King) Carl of the Henry Doorly Zoo, Omaha, Nebraska, Jake Adams (www.coralidea.com), Steve Ruddy (www.coralreefecosystems.com), Julian Sprung (www.twolittlefishies.com), master aquarist Tony Vargas, Michael P. Janes (www.aquatouch.com), and all the hobbyists across the country who extended a warm welcome to their homes and allowed me to take measurements
and photographs.

figure51.jpg

Figure 51. Suggested records for those observing a coral spawning.

Table 108. Quick and Easy Reference Table
TaxonSexualityReproductionVertical (egg)Horizontal water 85%Reference
Acanthastrea hillaeHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acanthastrea echinataHermaphroditicBroadcastBermas et al., 1992
Acanthastrea lordhowensisHermaphroditicBroadcastWilson & Harrison, 1997
Acrhelia horrescens?BrooderKawaguti, 1941
Acropora (Isopora) brueggemanniHermaphroditicBrooderOkubo et al., 2007
Acropora (Isopora) cuneataHermaphroditicBrooderBothwell, 1981
Acropora (Isopora) paliferaHermaphroditicBrooderBothwell, 1981
Acropora (Isopora) togianensisHermaphroditicBrooderWallace et al., 2007
Acropora aculeusHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora acuminataBroadcastRosser & Gilmour, in press
Acropora anthocerisHermaphroditicBroadcastsee van OppenBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora asperaHermaphroditicBroadcastBothwell, 1981
Acropora austeraHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora carolinianaBroadcastBaird et al., 2000
Acropora cerealisHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora cervicornisHermaphroditicBroadcastVargas-Ángel & Thomas, 2002
Acropora clathrataHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora corymbosaHermaphroditicBrooderStimson, 1978
Acropora cytheriaHermaphroditicBroadcastWallace et al., 2007
Acropora danaiHermaphroditicBroadcastDai et al., 1992; Hayashibara et al.,1993
Acropora delicatulaPossibly sterileRichmond & Hunter, 1990
Acropora delicatulaSee Acropora selagoBroadcastWallace et al., 2007
Acropora digitiferaHermaphroditicBroadcastWallace et al., 2007
Acropora dilitataHermaphroditicBroadcastHeyward, 1985
Acropora divaricataHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora doneiHermaphroditicBroadcastGuest et al., 2005; Hayashibara et al.,1993
Acropora elseyiBroadcastMarquis et al., 2005
Acropora eurystomaHermaphroditicBroadcastShlesinger & Loya, 1985
Acropora exquisitaHermaphroditicBroadcastHayashibara et al.,1993
Acropora floridaHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora formosaHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora gemmiferaHermaphroditicBroadcastMorita et al., 2006
Acropora glauca?BroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora grandisHermaphroditicBroadcastGuest et al., 2002; Babcock et al., 1986
Acropora grandulosaHermaphroditicBroadcastWallace, 1985
Acropora hemprichiiHermaphroditicBroadcastRinkevich and Loya, 1979
Acropora horridaHermaphroditicBroadcastWallace, 1985
Acropora humilisHermaphroditicBroadcastBothwell, 1981
Acropora humilis?BrooderStimson, 1978
Acropora hyacinthusHermaphroditicBroadcastWallace et al., 2007
Acropora hystrixHermaphroditicBroadcastHeyward, 1989
Acropora intermedaBroadcastXGuest et al., 2005
Acropora irregularisHermaphroditicBroadcastHeyward, 1989; Richmond & Hunter, 1990
Acropora jacquelineaeBroadcastBaird et al., 2000
Acropora kimbeensisBaird et al., 2000
Acropora “kosurini-like”BroadcastRosser & Gilmour, in press
Acropora latistellaHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora lianaeBroadcastGuest et al., 2005
Acropora listeriBroadcastHarrison et al., 1984
Acropora longicyathusHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora loripesHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora lutkeniHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora microcladosHermaphroditicBroadcastGuest et al., 2005; Hayashibara et al.,1993
Acropora microphthalmaHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora milleporaHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora monticulosaHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora muricataHermaphroditicBroadcastWallace et al., 2007
Acropora nanaHermaphroditicBroadcastDai et al., 1992
Acropora nastuaHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora nobilisHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 198
Acropora ocellataHermaphroditicBroadcastKenyan, 1992
Acropora palawensis?BrooderKawaguti, 1940 in Fadlallah, 1983
Acropora palmataHermaphroditicBroadcastMiller et al., 2000
Acropora palmeraeBroadcastDai et al., 1992
Acropora papillareBroadcastRosser & Gilmour, in press
Acropora plumosaBroadcastBaird et al., 2000
Acropora polystomaBroadcastRosser & Gilmour, in press
Acropora pulchraHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora robustaHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora samoensisHermaphroditicBroadcastGuest et al., 2005; Hayashibara et al.,1993
Acropora sarmentosaHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora scandensHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora secaleHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora selagoHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora smithiHermaphroditicBroadcastRichmond & Hunter, 1990
Acropora solitaryensisHermaphroditicBroadcastHarrison, 2008
Acropora spathulataBroadcastBaird et al., 2000
Acropora spiciferaBroadcastDai et al., 1992
Acropora squarrosaHermaphroditicBroadcastKenyon, 1992
Acropora striata?BrooderStimson, 1978
Acropora subulataBroadcastRosser & Gimour, in press
Acropora surculosaHermaphroditicBroadcastKenyon, 1992
Acropora tenuisHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora tortuosaHermaphroditicBroadcastHarrison, 2008
Acropora valenciennesiHermaphroditicBroadcastHayashibara et al.,1993
Acropora validaHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Acropora variabilisHermaproditicBroadcastShlesinger et al., 1998
Acropora vaughaniBroadcastRosser & Gimour, in press
Acropora verweyiHermaphroditicBroadcastGuest et al., 2005; Hayashibara et al.,1993
Acropora willisaeBroadcastNegri et al., 2001
Acropora yongeiHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Agaricia agaricitesHermaphroditicBrooderGleason et al., 2001
Agaricia crassa?BrooderVaughan, 1908; in Fadlallah, 1983
Agaricia fragilis?BrooderMayor, 1915; in Fadlallah, 1983
Agaricia grahame?BrooderNOAA Data base
Agaricia humilisHermaphroditicBroodervan Moorsel, 1980
Agaricia lamarcki?BrooderNOAA Data base
Agaricia purpureaHermaphroditicBroodervan Moorsel, 1980
Agaricia tenufolia?BrooderNOAA Data base
Agaricia undata?BrooderNOAA Data base
Alveopora daedaleaHermaphroditicBrooderShlesinger et al., 1998
Alveopora japonicaHermaphroditicBrooderIgarashi et al., 1992
Anacropora matthaiBroadcastWallace et al., 2007
Astrangia danaeGonochoricBroadcastSzmant-Froelich et al., 1980
Astrangia lajollaensisGonochoricBroadcastFadlallah, 1982
Astrangia poculataSee A. danaeFitzgerlad & Szmant, 1997
Astreopora gracilisBroadcastDai et al., 1992
Astreopora listeriBroadcastDai et al., 1992
Astreopora myriophthalmaHermaproditicBroadcastShlesinger et al., 1998
Astreopora randalliHermaproditicBroadcastRichmond & Hunter, 1990
Australogyra zelliHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Balanophyllia elegansGonochoricBrooderFadlallah & Pearse, 1982
Balanophyllia europaeaHermaphroditicBrooderGoffredo et al., 2005
Balanophyllia pruvotiGonochoricRadetic et al., 2002
Balanophyllia regiaGonochoric (?)BrooderGoffredo et al., 2005
Balanophyllia sp.BrooderAbe, 1937, in Fadlallah, 1983
Barabattoia amicorumHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Catalaphyllia jarderniGonochoricBroadcastWillis et al., 1995
Caulastrea furcataHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Cladocora caespitosaHermaphroditicBroadcastKružić et al., 2008
Cladopsammia rolandiHermaphroditicBrooderde Lacaze-Duthiers, 1897, in Fadlallah, 1983
Clavarina triangularisHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock & Heyward, 1986; Babcock et al., 1986
Colpophyllia amaranthusBroadcastNOAA Database
Colpophyllia breviseralisBroadcastNOAA Database
Colpophyllia natansHermaphroditicBroadcastNOAA Database
Coscinarea columnaGonochoricBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Cynarina lacrymalisHermaphroditicBroadcastShlesinger et al., 1998
Cyphastrea chalcidicumHermaphroditicBroadcastDai et al., 1992; Babcock et al., 1986
Cyphastrea microphthalmaHermaphroditicBroadcastShlesinger et al., 1998
Cyphastrea ocellinaHermaphroditicBrooderStimson, 1978; Kolinski & Cox, 2003
Cyphastrea serailaHermaphroditicBroadcastWilson, 1997; Hayashibara et al.,1993
Dendrogyra cylindrusGonochoricBroadcastSzmant, 1986
Dendrophyllia nigrescensSee Tubastraea spp.
Dendrophyllia sp.GonochoricBrooderBabcock et al., 1986
Diaseris distortaGonochoricBroadcastColley et al., 2000
Dichocoenia stellarisBrooderNOAA Data base
Dichocoenia stokesiGonochoric & HermaphroditicBroadcastHoke et al., 2002
Diploastrea helioporaGonochoricBroadcastHayashibara et al.,1993
Diploria clivosaHermaphroditicBroadcastAlvarado et al., 2003; NOAA Data base
Diploria labyrinthiformisHermaphroditicBroadcastAlvarado et al., 2003
Diploria labyrinthiformisHermaphroditicBrooderDuerden, 1902 in Fadlallah, 1983
Diploria strigosaHermaphroditicBroadcastAlvarado et al., 2003
Diploria strigosaHermaphroditicBrooderHagman et al., 1998
Echinophyllia asperaHermaphroditicBroadcastDai et al., 1992; Fan & Dai, 1992
Echinophyllia orpheensisHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Echinopora gemmaceaHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock & Heyward, 1986
Echinopora horridaHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Echinopora lamellosaHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Echinopora pacificusHermaphroditicBroadcastHayashibara et al.,1993
Enallopsammia rostrata( deep water)GonochoricWaller, 2005
Euphyllia ancoraGonochoricBroadcastWillis et al., 1985
Euphyllia divisaGonochoricBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Euphyllia glabrescensHermaphroditicBrooderHuang et al., 2008
Euphyllia parancoraGonochoric?BroadcastASIRA Data base
Euphyllia rugosaBrooderASIRA Data base
Eusmilia fastigataBroadcastCoral Reef Task Force Data base
Favia bennettaeHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Favia doreyensisHermaphroditicBroadcastMarshall & Stephenson, 1933, in Fadlallah, 1983
Favia favusHermaphroditicBroadcastShlesinger et al., 1998
Favia favusGonochoricBroadcastAlvarado et al., 2003
Favia favusHermaphroditicBroadcastHayashibara et al.,1993
Favia fragumHermaphroditicBrooderAlvarado et al., 2003
Favia helianthoidesHermaphroditicBroadcastBermas et al., 1992
Favia laxaBroadcastDai et al., 1992
Favia lizardensisHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Favia matthaiHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Favia pallidaHermaphroditicBroadcastPenland et al., 2004; Babcock & Hey ward,1986
Favia rotumanaBroadcastHarrison et al., 1984
Favia speciosaHermaphroditicBroadcastPenland et al., 2004; Dai et al, 1992
Favia stelligeraHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Favia veroniHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Favites abditaHermaphroditicBroadcastPenland et al., 2004; Wallace et al., 2007
Favites bennettaeHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Favites chinensisHermaphroditicBroadcastNowzawa & Harrison, 2005
Favites complanataHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock & Heyward, 1986
Favites flexuosaHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Favites halicoraHermaphroditicBroadcastPenland et al., 2004; Babcock et al., 1986
Favites pentagonaHermaphroditicBroadcastOliver and Babcock, 1992
Favites russelliHermaphroditicBroadcastDai et al., 1992; Babcock et al., 1986
Flabellum alabastrum (deep water)GonochoricFadlallah, 1983
Flabellum angulare (deep water)GonochoricWaller, 2005
Flabellum curvatum (deep water)GonochoricWaller, 2005
Flabellum impensum (deep water)GonochoricWaller, 2005
Flabellum japonicumGonochoricFadlallah, 1983
Flabellum rubrumProtandrous HermaphroditeMoseley, 1881, in Fadlallah, 1983
Flabellum rubrumHermaphroditicFadlallah, 1983
Flabellum thouarsii (deep water)GonochoricWaller, 2005
Fungia actiniformisSee Heliofungia actiniformis
Fungia concinnaGonochoricBroadcastXOliver, 1985
Fungia fungitesGonochoricBroadcastPenland et al., 2004; Babcock et al., 1986
Fungia granulosaGonochoricBroadcastKramarsky-Winter & Loya, 1998
Fungia horridaBroadcastBabcock et al., 2003
Fungia paumotensisGonochoricBroadcastWillis et al., 1985
Fungia repandaGonochoricBroadcastHayashibara et al.,1993
Fungia scutariaGonochoricBroadcastKolinski & Cox, 2003
Fungia scutariaParthenogenic?Krupp, 1983
Fungia sp. (Okinawa)GonochoricBroadcastHeyward et al., 1987
Fungicyathus crispaGonochoricWaller, 2005
Fungicyathus fragilisGonochoricWaller, 2005
Fungiacyathus marenzelleriGonochoricWaller, 2005
Galaxea aspera?BrooderFadlallah, 1983
Galaxea astreataHermaphroditicBroadcastDai et al., 1992; Babcock et al., 1986
Galaxea fascicularisHermaphroditic, female sterileBroadcastShlesinger et al., 1998; Hayakawa et al., 2005
Galaxea fascicularisGonochoricBroadcastHarrison & Wallace, 1990; Hayakawa et al., 2005
Galaxea horrescensBrooderASIRA Data base
Gardineroseris planulataHermaphroditicGlynn et al., 1996
Goniastrea asperaHermaphroditicBroadcastPenland et al., 2004
Goniastrea asperaHermaphroditicBrooderNishikawa & Sakai, 2003
Goniastrea australensisHermaphroditicBroadcastPenland et al., 2004; Wilson & Harrison, 2005
Goniastrea edwardsiHermaphroditicBroadcastPenland et al., 2004
Goniastrea favulusHermaphroditicBroadcastXAlvarado et al., 2003
Goniastrea favulusProtandrous HermaphroditeKojis & Quinn, 1981
Goniastrea palauensisHermaphroditicBroadcastPenland et al., 2004
Goniastrea pectinataHermaphroditicBroadcastPenland et al., 2004
Goniastrea retiformisHermaphroditicBroadcastShlesinger et al., 1998
Goniocorella dumosa (deep water)GonochoricWaller, 2005
Goniopora columnaGonochoricBroadcastWillis et al., 1985
Goniopora dijboutiensisGonochoricBroadcastWillis et al., 1985
Goniopora fruticosaPossibly sterileRichmond & Hunter, 1990
Goniopora gigas?BroadcastPetersen et al., 2007
Goniopora lobataGonochoricBroadcastBabcock & Heyward, 1986; Babcock et al., 1986
Goniopora minorGonochoricBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Goniopora norfolkensisGonochoricBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Goniopora palauensisBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Goniopora queenslandiaeGonochoricBrooderYamazato et al., 1975, in Fadlallah, 1983
Goniopora savignyiGonochoricBroadcastShlesinger et al., 1998
Goniopora sp. GonochoricBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Goniopora sp. 1GonochoricBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Goniopora tenuidensGonochoricBroadcastWillis et al., 1985
Heliofungia actiniformisHermaphroditic (?)BrooderAbe, 1937 in Krupp, 1983; Fadlallah, 1983
Heliofungia actiniformisGonochoricBroadcastWillis et al., 1985;  Babcock et al., 1986
Helioseris cucullataBrooderNOAA Data base
Herpetoglossa simplexGonochoricBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Herpolitha limaxGonochoricBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Heteropsammia aequicostatusGonochoricBroadcastFisk, 1981
Heteropsammia cochleaGonochoricBroadcastFisk, 1981
Hydnophora exesaHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Hydnophora rigidaHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Isophyllastrea rigida?BrooderCoral Reef Task Force data
Isophyllia dipsaceaGonochoricBrooder (external)Fadlallah, 1985
Isophyllia sinuosaGonochoricBrooderFadlallah, 1983
Isophyllia sp.Gonochoric (?)BroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Isopora brueggemanniHermaphroditicBrooder Okubo et al., 2007
Isopora togianensisHermaphroditicBrooderWallace et al., 2007
Leptastrea bottaeGonochoricBroadcastKolinski & Cox, 2003
Leptastrea purpureaGonochoricBroadcastKolinski & Cox, 2003
Leptopsammia pruvotiGonochoricBrooderXKružić et al., 2008
Leptoria phryiaHermaphroditicBroadcastDai et al., 1992; Babcock et al., 1986
Lobophyllia corymbosaHermaphroditicBroadcastHarriot, 1983
Lobophyllia hemprichiiHermaphroditicBroadcastWillis et al., 1985
Lobophyllia pachyseptaHermaphroditicBroadcastMarquis et al., 2005; Babcock et al., 1986
Lobophyllia sp.HermaphroditicMarshall & Stephenson, 1933; in Fadlallah, 1983
Lophelia pertusa (deep water)Gonochoric?Waller, 2005; Waller & Tyler, 2005
Madracis carmabiHermaphroditcBrooderVermeij et al., 2004
Madracis decactisHermaphroditcBrooderVermeij et al., 2004
Madracis formosaHermaphroditcBrooderVermeij et al., 2004
Madracis mirabilisHermaphroditcBrooderVermeij et al., 2004
Madracis pharensisHermaphroditcBrooderXVermeij et al., 2004
Madracis senariaHermaphroditcBrooderXVermeij et al., 2004
Madrepora oculata (deep water)Gonochoric?Waller & Tyler, 2005
Manicina areolataHermaphroditicBrooderFadlallah, 1983
Meandrina areolata?BrooderYonge, 1935, in Fadlallah, 1983
Meandrina meandritesBrooderNOAA Data base
Merulina ampliataHermaphroditicBroadcastPenland et al., 2004; Babcock et al., 1986
Merulina scabriculaHermaphroditicBroadcastHayashibara et al.,1993
Micromussa amakuensisBroadcastMezaki et al., 2007
Montastrea  magnistellataHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Montastrea annularisHermaphroditicBroadcastAlvarado et al., 2003
Montastrea annuligeraHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Montastrea cavernosaGonochoricBroadcastAlvarado et al., 2003
Montastrea curtaHermaphroditicBroadcastWilson, 1997; Babcock et al., 1986
Montastrea faveolataHermaphroditicBroadcastXLevitan et al., 2004; Steiner, 1995
Montastrea franksiHermaphroditicBroadcastLevitan et al., 2004; Szmant et al., 1997
Montastrea valenciennesiHermaphroditicBroadcastDai et al., 1992; Babcock et al., 1986
Montipora aequituberculataHermaphroditicBroadcastDai et al., 1992
Montipora altaseptaHermaphroditicBroadcastXPenland et al., 2004
Montipora cactusHermaproditicBroadcastPenland et al., 2004; Wallace et al., 2007
Montipora capitataHermaproditicBroadcastHeyward, 1986
Montipora crassituberculataHermaproditicPenland et al., 2004
Montipora digitataHermaproditicBroadcastPenland et al., 2004; Morita et al., 2006
Montipora dilatataHermaproditicBroadcastHeyward, 1986
Montipora efflorescensHermaphroditicBroadcastWallace et al., 2007
Montipora effusaBroadcastYeemin, 1988
Montipora erythraeaHermaproditicBroadcastShlesinger et al., 1998
Montipora eydouxiHermaphroditicBroadcastHirose et al., 2000
Montipora faveolataHermaphroditicBroadcastRichmond & Hunter, 1990
Montipora flabellataHermaphroditicBroadcastHeyward, 1986
Montipora floweriHermaphroditicBroadcastHayashibara et al.,1993
Montipora foliosaHermaphroditicBroadcastn/an/aDai et al., 1992
Montipora hispidaHermaproditicBroadcastPenland et al., 2004; Babcock et al., 1986
Montipora informisHermaphroditicBroadcastDai et al., 1992
Montipora monasteriataHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Montipora patulaHermaphroditicBroadcastHeyward, 1986
Montipora peltiformisBroadcastMundy & Babcock, 1998
Montipora ramosaBroadcastHarrison et al., 1984
Montipora samarensisHermaphroditicPenland et al., 2004
Montipora spumosaHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Montipora studeriHermaphroditicBroadcastHeyward, 1986
Montipora tuberculosaBroadcastBabcock & Heyward, 1986
Montipora turgescensHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Montipora turtlenesisHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1987
Montipora venosaHermaphroditicBroadcastDai et al., 1992; Hayashibara et al.,1993
Montipora verrilliHermaphroditicBroadcastHeyward, 1986
Montipora verrucosaHermaphroditicBroadcastMaté et al., 1998
Moseleya latistellataHermaphroditicBrooderWallace et al., 2007
Mussa sp.HermaphroditicSteiner, 1993
Mussa angulosaBrooderCoral Reef Task Force data
Mussismilia braziliensisHermaphroditicBroadcastPires et al., 1999
Mussismilia hartiiHermaphroditicBroadcastPires et al., 2002
Mussismilia hispidaHermaphroditicBroadcastPires et al., 2002
Mussismilia sp.HermaphroditicPires et al., 1999
Mycedium elephantotusHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock & Heyward, 1986
Mycetophyllia ailiciaeHermaphroditicBrooderSzmant, 1986
Mycetophyllia danaanaBrooderCoral Reef Task Force data
Mycetophyllia feroxHermaphroditicBrooderSzmant, 1986
Mycetophyllia lamarckianaBrooderCoral Reef Task Force data
Mycetophyllia reesiBrooderXCoral Reef Task Force data
Oulastrea crispaHermaphroditicBroadcastLam, 2000
Oulastrea crispaHermaphroditicBrooderLam, 2000
Neohelia porcellanaGonochoric (?)Pratt, 1900, in Fadlallah, 1983
Oculina sp.BroadcastBrooke & Young, 2003
Oculina varicosaGonochoricBroadcastBrooke & Young, 2003
Oculina patagonicaGonochoricBroadcastFine et al., 2001
Oulophyllia bennettaeHermaphroditicBroadcastBermas et al., 1992
Oulophyllia crispaHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Oxypora glabraHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Oxypora laceraHermaphroditicBroadcastMundy & Babcock, 1998; Babcock et al., 1986
Pachyseris rugosaGonochoricBroadcastDai et al., 1992; Babcock et al., 1986
Pachyseris speciosaGonochoricBroadcastPenland et al., 2004; Baird et al., 2001
Pavona cactusGonochoric?Marshall & Stephenson, 1933; in Fadlallah, 1983
Pavona duerdeniGonochoricBroadcastKolinski & Cox, 2003
Pavona explanataGonochoric (?)Stimson, 1978
Pavona giganteaGonochoricBroadcastGlynn et al., 1996
Pavona variansGonochoricBroadcastMaté, 1998; Shlesinger et al., 1998
Pectinia alcicornisHermaphroditicBroadcastPenland et al., 2004; Babcock & Hey ward,1986
Pectinia lactucaHermaphroditicBroadcastBermas et al., 1992
Pectinia paeoniaHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock & Heyward, 1986
Physogyra lichtensteiniGonochoricBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986 & 2003
Platygyra contortaHermaphroditicBroadcastHayashibara et al.,1993
Platygyra daedaleaHermaphroditicBroadcastMangubhai & Harrison, 2008
Platygyra lamellinaHermaphroditicBroadcastShlesinger et al., 1998; Dai et al., 1992
Platygyra piniHermaphroditicBroadcastMangubhai & Harrison, 2008
Platygyra ryukuensisHermaphroditicBroadcastHeyward, 1988
Platygyra sinensisHermaphroditicBroadcastWallace et al., 2007; Oliver and Babcock, 1992
Platygyra verweyiHermaphroditicBroadcastMangubhai & Harrison, 2008
Plerogyra sinuosaBroadcastASIRA Data base
Plesiastrea verisporaBroadcastDai et al., 1992
Pocillopora bulbosaSee P. damicornisBrooderGoffredo et al., 2006
Pocillpora brevicornisSee P. damicornis
Pocillopora caespitosaSee P. damicornisBrooderXBenayahu et al., 1992
Pocillopora damicornisHermaphroditicBrooderWard, 1992
Pocillopora damicornisParthenogenic?Permata et al., 2000
Pocillopora damicornisBroadcastWard, 1992
Pocillopora damicornis Type YBrooderStimson, 1987
Pocillopora damicornis Type BBrooderStimson, 1987
Pocillopora elegans?BrooderStimson, 1978
Pocillopora eydouxiHermaphroditicBroadcastHirose et al., 2000
Pocillopora meandrinaHermaphroditicBroadcastStimson, 1978
Pocillopora verrucosaHermaphroditicBroadcastShlesinger et al., 1998
Pocillopora verrucosa?BroadcastStimson, 1978
Podabacia crustaceaGonochoricBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Polyphyllia talpinaGonochoricBroadcastWillis et al., 1985
Porites andrewsiGonochoricBroadcastKojis & Quinn, 1981
Porites annaeBroadcastDai et al., 1992
Porites astreoidesHermaphroditicBrooderBrazeau et al., 1998
Porites astreoidesHermaphroditic & FemaleBrooderChornesky & Peters, 1987
Porites astreoidesHermaphrodite & Female/ MaleBrooderSoong, 1991
Porites attenuataBrooderASIRA Data base
Porites australensisGonochoricBroadcastNeves, 1998
Porites branneriBrooderXCoral Reef Task Force data
Porites brighamiGonochoric or HermaphroditicBrooderXHunter & Hodgson in Richmond & Hunter, 1990
Porites clavariaGonochoricBrooderDuerden, 1902, in Fadlallah, 1983
Porites colonensisBrooderCoral Reef Task Force data
Porites compressaGonochoricBroadcastKolinski & Cox, 2003
Porites cylindricaGonochoricBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Porites divaricataBrooderCoral Reef Task Force Data
Porites evermanniGonochoricBroadcastNeves, 1998
Porites furcataGonochoricBrooderSoong, 1991
Porites haddonisee Porites stephensoniBrooderSoong, 1991
Porites heronensisBrooder (?)Harriot & Banks, 1995
Porites lichenHermaphroditicBrooderKolinski & Cox, 2003
Porites lobataGonochoricBroadcastPenland et al., 2004
Porites lobataParthenogenic?Fadlallah, 1983
Porites luteaGonochoricBroadcastRichmond & Hunter, 1990
Porites luteaParthenogenic?Fadlallah, 1983
Porites murrayensisGonochoricBrooderNeves, 1998
Porites panamensisGonochoricBrooderGlynn et al., 2008
Porites poritesGonochoricBrooderTomascik & Sander, 1987
Porites poritesHermaphroditicTomascik & Sander, 1987
Porites rusGonochoric?Richmond & Hunter, 1990
Porites solidaGonochoricBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Porites stephensoni?BrooderSoong, 1993
Psammocora contiguaGonochoricBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Psammocora digitataGonochoricBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Psammocora stellata?BrooderKolinski & Cox, 2003
Rhizopsammia minutaBrooderAbe, 1939, in Fadlallah, 1983
Sandalolitha robustaGonochoricBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Scapophyllia cylindricaHemaphroditicBroadcastXWillis et al., 1985
Scolymia sp. (Atlantic)?BrooderCoral Reef Task Force Data base
Scolymia cubensisSee Scolymia wellsi
Scolymia vitiensisHemaphroditicBroadcastWillis et al., 1985
Scolymia wellsiHemaphroditicBrooderXPires et al., 2000
Scolymia wellsiGonochoric (?)BrooderPitombo, 1992
Seriatopora caliendrumHermpahroditicBrooderShlesinger et al., 1998
Seriatopora hystrixHermpahroditicBrooderFadlallah, 1983
Siderastrea radiansGonochoricBrooderSoong, 1991
Siderastrea radiansHermaphroditicBrooderXDuerden, 1902, in Coral Reef Task Force Data base
Siderastrea radiansProtandrous HermaphroditeDuerden, 1902, in Fadlallah, 1983
Siderastrea sidereaBrooderNeves et al., 2008
Siderastrea sidereaGonochoricBroadcastSzmant, 1986
Siderastrea stellataBrooderNeves et al., 2008
Solenastrea boumoniBroadcastCoral Reef Task Force Data base
Solenastrea hyadesBroadcastCoral Reef Task Force Data base
Solensomilia variabilisGonochoricBroadcast (?)NOAA Technical Memo NMFS-OPR-28
Stephanocoenia interceptaGonochoricBroadcastCoral Reef Task Force data
Stephanocoenia micheliniGonochoricBroadcastSmith, 1997
Stephanophyllia formosissimaBrooderMoseley, 1881, in Fadlallah, 1983
Stylocoeniella sp.GonochoricHarrison, 1985
Stylophora mordaxBrooderBrown et al., 1998
Stylophora pistillataHermaphroditicBrooderShlesinger & Loya, 1985
Stylophora pistillataProtandrous HermaphroditeLoya, 1976
Symphyllia radiansHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Symphyllia rectaHermaphroditicBroadcastBabcock et al., 1986
Symphyllia sp.HermaphroditicWillis et al., 1985
Tubastraea aureaSee Tubastraea coccinea
Tubastraea coccineaHermaphroditicBrooderPaz-Garcia et al., 2007
Tubastraea faulkneriGonochoricBrooderBabcock et al., 1986
Turbinaria frondensGonochoricWillis et al., 1985
Turbinaria mesenterinaBroadcastWillis, 1987
Turbinaria reniformisGonochoricBroadcastXWillis et al., 1985
Turbinaria sp.GonochoricBroadcastHarrison et al., 1984
Categories:
  Advanced Aquarist, Advanced Aquarist, Breeding
Dana Riddle
About

 Dana Riddle

  (120 articles)

I have been an aquarist since 1964 and a reef hobbyist since the mid-1980’s. I am the owner of a small laboratory (Riddle Aquatic Laboratories) that specializes in investigation of interactions between light and water motion & photosynthetic organisms (especially corals). The results of this research, resulting in almost 250 articles, have been published in Advanced Aquarist Online, Aquarium Frontiers, Koralle, Freshwater and Marine Aquarium, The Breeders’ Registry, Aquarium Fish, Marine Fish Monthly and others. My first article was published in a 1984 SeaScope and relayed my experiences with a refugium – an idea that would catch fire about a decade later. I have had the honor of making over 60 presentations to various groups, including national conferences such as the Marine Aquarium Conference of North America (MACNA) International Marine Aquarium Conference (IMAC), PetsFestival (Italy), regional conferences, and local clubs. I received the Marine Aquarium Society of North America (MASNA) Aquarist of the Year Award in 2011 at the MACNA conference in Des Moines.

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